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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
DEF: the concept that government officials are responsible to and serve at the pleasure of constituents or elected officials (and that they may be removed from office by those electors of officials)
EX: the presdient is voted for to serve the people, can be impeached by senate if he makes a mistake
DEF: to resolve a matter in dispute; when backed up by the authority of government the decision can be enforced
EX: ?
DEF: complete self-sufficiency
EX: North Korea, but still has limited trade with PRC and Japan; modernization is forcing more trade
DEF: system of governance based on coercion rather than political legitimacy
EX: PRC justifies authoritarian rule by communist party by saying it leads to economic prosperity
DEF: the legal right to exercise power on behalf of the society and/or government
EX: our Constitution gives congress the authority to pass laws
DEF: system of governance in which a small group/one person has absolute power
EX: Soviet Union under Stalin or Iraq under Sadaam Hussein
DEF: in a parliamentary system, the group of ministers who direct administratice bureaucracies (called ministries) and make up the govenment, which is responsible to the parliament; in a presidential system, the administrative directors responsible to the president
EX: the president's cabinet consists of secretary of state, secretary of defense, etc.
catch-all party
DEF: political party who aims to gather support from a broad range of citizens through a de-emphasis of ideology and an emphasis on pragmatism, charismatic leadership, and marketing
EX: New Deal coalition brought together labor unions, southern Dixiecrats, progressives, and others
DEF: a member of a state who is legally entitled to full civil rights and is legally obliged to perform defined public duties
EX: voting, paying taxes
civic culture
DEF: a political culture in which citizens widely share a belief in the ligitmacy of their regime and a trust in the government; therefor the citizens demonstrate restraint in their demands on the government
EX: in US reasoned loyalty and obedience to law because of participation allowed by constitution
civil servants
DEF: employees of the government who administer (not make) policy; expected to serve any and all governments
EX: independent agencies, not politically related
civil service
DEF: system of carefully describing the tasks involved in performing government jobs, evaluating applicants for those jobs, and hiring people from among those applicants based on skills and experience rather than political factors; also protects incumbents in civil service positions from politically based retribution
EX: Pendleton Act of 1883 replaced spoils system
civil society
DEF: all those organizations outside of government and commercial arenas which provide avenues of public participation in society
EX: PTA, Rotary Club, United Way, de Tocqueville
DEF: the divisions of society into groups according to economic roles and status attributes
EX: more prevelant in other countries than US
DEF: factors that seperate groups within a society; may be cultural, historic, geographic, economic, ethnic, racial, etc.; the wider and deeper the cleavages, the less unified the society; cleavages which coincide with one another can reinforce each other; cleavages that don't coincide can weaken the divisions between groups
collective responsibility
DEF: in a parliamentary system, concept that all cabinet members agree on policy decisions and that all will be responsible for the results
EX: more division within parties from legislative/executive in US
command economy
DEF: an economic/political system in which government decisions rather than markets determine resource use and output
EX: PRC started changing to a more market type economy in 1978 but still under Communist Party control
DEF: a decision-making process in which all parties concede some of their goals in order to reach other of their goals through agreements with other political actors
EX: Great Compromise in constitutional convention
DEF: situation in which values, goals, or policies are contradictory or incompatible with each other
DEF: decision-making process that emphasizes win-win outcomes while seeking to avoid zero-sum or win-lose situations
EX: 1993 consensus between Democrats and Republicans about need for healthcare reform, interest of both parties emphasized
DEF: any of those things in comparative case analysis that are essentially identical in studied examples
EX: ?
DEF: a supreme law that defines the structure of a nation-state's regime and the legal processes governments must follow
EX: US vs. UK
DEF: a system of governance in which the government is dominated by representativees of groups within society; may or may not be democratic to some degree
EX: popular in countries with small, open economies and many labor unions; like Ireland, Finland, Sweden, or Austria
coup d'etat
DEF: forceful replacement of a regime or a government by a small elite group or groups
EX: occured after financial crisis in Thailand of 1998 and in many other developing countries in late 20th century
DEF: pressures from people and interest groups on the government and state for change
EX: demand for economic help after depression led to New Deal
DEF: spread of representative government to more countries and the process of making governments more representative
EX: Great Britain democratized
dependent variable
DEF: the result of a political decision making which is determined by the inputs, institutions, and processes (independent variables)
a process in a unitary system of delegating some decision-making to local public bodies
EX: assembly created in N. Ireland as result of Belfast Agreement of 1998
distributive policies
DEF: government policies that allocate valuable resources
EX: government policies that distribute money for highways, education, etc.
economic liberalization
DEF: policy designed to remove political controls over economic activity
EX: American healthcare more liberalized, i.e. privatized, than other western democracies
DEF: the people and agencies which implement/execute government policy
EX: US executive branch
extractive policies
DEF: government efforts to gather valuable resources for public use
EX: taxes
DEF: a group organized on the grounds of self-perceived common interest within a political party, interest group, or government
EX: Federalist no. 10
failed state
DEF: a state within which the government has lost the ability to provide the most basic of public servies
EX: Sudan
DEF: the reactions of people and organizations that shape political environments for furture policy making
EX: public opinion polls
first past the post/single member district
DEF: an electoral system in which voters choose an individual running for office in each legislative district
EX: representative districts in US
function (public)
DEF: the things done by government to decide on, implement, and enforce policy decisions
EX: private functions are done by individuals and private organizations to further goals
fusion of powers
DEF: a system of governance in which the authority of government is concentrated in one body
EX: opposite of US with seperation among 3 branches
DEF: a description of common features of a chosen group or category of examples
DEF: the characteristics of a regime or a government
grassroots politics
DEF: locally organized activism, as opposed to top-down, hierarchial organizing
import substitution
DEF: government policy that uses trade restrictions and subsidies to encourage domestic production of manufactured goods
independent variable
DEF: any one of the inputs, institutions, or processes that shape the results of government decision-making
industrial policy
DEF: a government's decisions and actions, which define goals and methods for the manufacturing sectors of an economy
EX: decisions regarding taxes, regulations, etc.
DEF: demands and support by individuals and groups upon the decision making process of government
interest aggregation
DEF: ways in which demands of citizens and groups are amalgamated into proposed policy packages
interest articulation
DEF: the methods by which citizens and groups can express their desires and make demands upon government
DEF: describing an activist government and/or state that is involved in a wide range of political, economic, and social arenas
iron triangle
DEF: private interests, bureaucrats, and legislators
Keynesian economics
DEF: ideas of John Maynard Keynes that governments can manipulate macroeconomic demand through taxation and spending policies in order to foster stable growth
DEF: belief that a regime is a proper one and that the government has a right to exercise authority
DEF: process of making the government the owner of productive resources
EX: Tennessee Valley Authority nationalized power in TN
DEF: pejorative label given to a variety of attempts to achieve hegemony over other nations; some people tend to use the term to describe the use of corporate power and wealth to gain influence in 3rd world countries; other use it to describe attempts by international organizations to impose change upon rich and powerful nations
EX: Kyoto Treaty is UN's attempt to control greenhouse gas emissions
non-governmental organization
DEF: private group that pursues self-defined goals outside of government; common activities are publicizing issues, lobbying, making demands on government, and providing direct services
DEF: government-owned corporation to compensate for the lack of private economic development or to ensure complete and equitable service to the whole country
EX: National Railroad
patron-client relationships
DEF: a usually informal alliance between a person holding power and less powerful or lower status people' the powerful patron provides power, status, jobs, land, goods, and/or protection in exchange for loyalty and political support
police powers
DEF: government powers to regulate public safety and enforce laws
political culture
DEF: collection of history, values, beliefs, assupmtions, attitudes, traditions, and symbols that define and influence political behavior within a nation-state
political communication
DEF: the flow of information from and about government to its constituents and feedback from constituents to people in government
political integration
DEF: the process of promoting loyalty to and identity with the nation-state over more parochial loyalties
political recruitment
DEF: the policyby which people become public participants and leaders
political socialization
DEF: institutions and methods of developing and reinforcing significant public beliefs, attitudes, and practices
post materialist values
DEF: beliefs in the importance of policy goals beyond one's immediate self interest
EX: environmentalism, cultural diversity
DEF: form of patron-client politics that legitimizes the exploitation of government power for the benefit of office holders and their followers
DEF: a significant change in the party or policy loyalties of substantial groups within a nation-state
redistributive policies
DEF: take valuable resources from one or more groups in society and allocate them to other groups
DEF: pattern of organization for a government (often described in a constitution or supreme law)
regulatory policies
DEF: government policies designed to control practices and behavior of citizens and organizations and prevent harmful results and/or ensure civic benefits of those behaviors
run-off elections
DEF: requires winners to win a majority, if no majority then least successful candidates are removed and new election is held
social democracy
DEF: political philosophy centered on electoral policies, egalitarian social policies, and the creation of social welfare system
DEF: assembly of all those people and groups within a nation-state that have the power to effect change at some level of society through direct action or political participation
structural adjustment
DEF: world bank programs which offer financial and management aid to poor countries while demanding privatization, trade liberalization, and governmental fiscal restraint
structure (public)
DEF: an organization or process by which a gov. carries out its public policies
supply side economics
DEF: the economic theory that a) markets are the most efficient and fare way to allocate productive resources and valuable products; b) government should interfere in the production of goods and services as little as possible; and c) economic actors will negate any actions by government to manipulate demand by anticipating the actions and taking counter measures
DEF: an organization of interdependent, interacting features bounded by limits, which interacts with its setting or environment
DEF: highly-educated bureaucrats who make decisions based on their perceptions of technical issues rather than political ones (contrasted with patron-client politics)
vote of confidence
DEF: a vote in a parliament expressing support for a government; a government losing a vote of confidence is expected to resign
zero-sum game
DEF: a resolution to a situation in which one side wins and others lose