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67 Cards in this Set

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What is the normal amount of blood in the body?
4 to 6 liters
Females contains less because of size.
Blood that is bright red comes from where? Why is is bright red?
An artery.
Because of the high oxygen.
Blood that is dark red comes from where?
Why is it dark red?
A vein or (Venous blood)
Because it is low in pH and high in C02.
The normal pH range of blood is between.
7.35 to 7.45
Plasma is the liquid part of blood and is approximately what percentage of water.
91%.
What are the three kinds of blood cells?
Red Blood Cells (RBC)
White Blood Cells and
Platelets
Tissue is responsible for the formation of...
Red Bone Marrow, Lymphatic tissue, Lymph nodes and Thymus gland.
Red blood cells contain the protein hemoglobin, which gives them the ability to transport...
oxygen.
What are the four blood types?
A, B, AB, and O
Of the four blood types, which is the Universal Recipient and which is the Universal Doner?
AB is the Universal Recipient
O is the Universal Doner
What does the term negative refer to in blood types?
Rh factor.
People whoes RBCs have the Rh antigen are...
Rh+
Rh+ or Rh-
Complete the following:
Red Blood cells ___ ___the blood stream.
White Blood cells ___ ___ the blood stream.
stay in

move out
Complete the follow:
Each person's heart is the size of their
_______.

The heart chamber holds how much blood?
fist /

less than a cup
The sack surrounding the heart is called the _____________.
Percardium
Describe the Cardio Pulmonary Circulation.
Superior(blood from upper body) and Inferior( blood from lower body) vena cava -->RT Atrium --> RT Ventricle --> Pulmonary Arteries --> Lungs --> Pulmonary Veins --> LT Atrium --> LT Ventricle --> Aorta --> Body
Where in the body is CO2(carbon dioxide) and H20(oxygen) exchanged?
In the lungs
What artery is the only artery that
de-oxygenates blood?
Pulmonary Artery
What veins are the only veins that carries oxygenated blood?
Pulmonary Veins
What is the function of the Mitral Valve(bicuspid)?
Prevents backflow of blood from the left ventricle to the left atrium when the left ventricle contracts.
The left atrium also has an endocine function. What endocrine hormone is used and what is its function?
ANH (atrial natriuretic hormone).
decrease the reabsorption of water and sodium.
What part of the heart would most likely be the cause of a Heart Attack?
Left Ventricle
Which side of the heart is more muscular?
Left side.
What is the most important part of the heart?
Left ventricle.
What is a heart attack?
Oxygen and nutrient abnormality. Obstruction of a major coronary artery.
What happens if the right coronary artery(a major artery) is blocked?
The SA node (sinatrial node) is damaged.
What specialized group of muscle cells is named the natural pacemaker of the heart?
SA node
Complete the following:

An EKG shows only the ____ side of the heart.
left
What part of the heart causes the "Thump" sound?
Aortic semilunar valve
What separates the two chambers of the heart?
Interventricular septum
What part of the heart is named the "widow maker" if blocked?
Left coronary vein
What part of the heart controls the blood flow from the right atrium to the right ventricle?
Tricuspid valve
What are the 3 layers that enclose the heart?
Pericardial Membranes
What is the heart rate of a healthy adult?
60 to 80 beats per min.
Explain the heart sounds and how they are made.
The heart beat makes a lub-dup sound every two seconds.

The first sound is created by closure of the AV valves.

The second sound is created by closure of the aortic and pulmonary valves.
Where is the heart located and what does it do?
The heart is located between the lungs and the thoracic cavity.

It pumps blood to create blood pressure, and circulate oxygen, nutrients and other substances.
What year was it known about the blood vessel in the circulation of blood?
Year 1628
Complete the following:

Small arteries are called?_________
Small veins are called?__________
Anastomosis is ____________.
Purpose of capillaries is to __________.
arterioles

venules

connecting or joining of

carry blood from arterioles to venules.
Another name for the aorta.
Super highway
Another name for the arterioles.
"Side streets"
Two major pathways of circulation.
Pulmonary and Systemic.
What is systemic circulation?
All other circulation except Pulmonary.
Explain the "circle of Willis and how serious it is.
A circle of blood vessels in the brain--Brain Circulation.

a rupture at any point causes instant death.
What is meaning of blood pressure (BP)?
The force of blood exerted against the walls.
Explain Systolic and Diastolic Pressure.
Sytolic Pressure
-should alway be higher of the two
-should never be <- 100
-should never be -> 140


Diastolic Pressure:
-should never be <- 60
-should never be -> 88 (90 is danger)
What is consider a normal blood pressure?
120/80, which gives a pulse pressure of 40.

Note: normals in medicine are very
in-exact.
What is meant by blood Profusion?
Low BP cannot be maintaine with ongoing medication.
What is a vaccine?
An injection to prevent disease.
What is an allergy?
Hypersensitive activtiy to an antigen.
When is Passive Immunity used.
When time is of the essense.
(person is given an antibodi)
When Active Immunity used?
For long-term prevention. (giving a person the antigen, forces them to make their own antibodi).
Describe the Respiratory System.
Like an upside down tree trunk.

Trachea, bronchi (right and left), bronchials, alveoli
Explain the significance of the diaphagm.
It creates active breathing. If it is paralyzed-not able to breath. It makes the whole respiratory system work.
What are the 3 pairs of salivary glands and where are they located?
Parotid glands - just below and in front of the ears.

Submandibular glands - at the posterior coners of the mandible.

Sublingual glands - below the floor of the mouth.
What are the digestive organs and where are the located?
Salivary glands - Oral cavity (mouth)

Stomach - between esophagus and small intestine

Liver - upper right/center of abdominal cavity

Pancreas - upper left abdominal cavity

Small intestines - abdominal cavity
What is External Respiration and Internal Respiration?
External - act of breathing

Internal - cells absorb the oxygen from the blood stream
What is the function of Acidosis?
Measures the acid in blood; a result of to much CO2.
What is the function of Alkalosis?
Measures the bicarbonate in the blood; a result of not enough C02.
What is function of the liver?
To release bile for the body to digest fat released into the hepatic duct.

LIVER-hepatic duct and GALLBLADDER- cystic duct connects to the COMMON BILE DUCT which goes to the DUODENUM.
Complete the following:
All nutrients are absorbed in the ______
_______.
small intestine.
Ulcers are caused by _________, not stress.
h-plyor
Trace the flow of urine.
Formation--> kidney-->ureter-->urinary bladder--> urethra
What is the function of the urinary meadus?
Closes and keeps the system sterile.
What is the meaning of metabolism?
The rate at which the body burns fuel.
What hormones affect water reabsorption?
ADH, ANH, aldostrone
Identify the female reproductive system.
Ovaries-->Fallopian tubes-->Uretus-->Cervix-->Vagina
What is Genotype and Phenotype?
Genotype - what is inherited (makeup)

Phenotype - apperance