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### 26 Cards in this Set

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 Quantum Numbers: n= ? What does it describe? n= 1,2,3... Shells, higher shell number means a greater distance away from nucleus. Quantum Numbers: l=? what does it describe? l = 0,1,2,n-1 Angular momentum quantum number, shape of electron's orbital. Quantum Numbers: m(l)= ? What does it describe? M(l) = ...-L,-1,0,1,L.. magnetic quantum number, orientation of orbitals in space. s-> L=0 p-> L=1 d-> L=2 Aufbau Principle Electrons placed in orbitals, subshells, and shells in order of increasing energy Pauli Exclusion Principle Within an atom, no two electrons can have the same set of quantum numbers. Hund's Rule Electrons always occupy an empty orbital first...singly, then pair up only if no empty orbitals are avaliable. Formula: Energy of an Electron E(n) = (1/n^2)(-2.178x10^(-18)) joules Electromagnetic radiation Electrons jump to higher energy levels, when drop, it gives off energy in the form of this radiation. Formula: Energy and Electromagnetic Radiation delta E = hf = hc/lambda planck's constant 6.63x10^(-34) Joule-sec speed of light 3.00x10^8 m/sec Dalton's elements first to say that there are many different kinds of atoms, which combine to form compoundds and same ratio of elements Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer development of periodic table Thomson's Experiment deflection of charges in a cathode ray tube, atoms are composed of positive and negative charges. Plumb pie model. Milikan's Experiment oil drops in electric field to calculate charge of an electron Rutherford's experiment fired alpha particles at gold foil. Positive chare concentrated in center. Max Planck electromagnetic energy is quantized, so energy changes do not occur smoothly but in small specific steps. Bohr model electrons orbit at a specific fixed radii, only works for hydrogen Heisenberg uncertainty principle impossible to know both the position and momentum of an electron at a particular instant. An electron orbital is a probability function describing the possibility of an electron at a location. de Brodlie hypothesis all matter has wave characteristics. De Broglie equation lambda= h / mv Atomic radius... decreases across a period increases down a group Size of ions... Cations smaller than atoms Anions bigger than atoms Ionization energy Energy required to remove an electron from an atom increases across a period decreases down a group Electron affinity measure of the change in energy of an atom when electron is added. Energy put in when atom becomes less stable...vice versa Electronegativity how strongly nucleus of an atom attracts electrons of other atoms in a bond Increases across period Decreases down a group