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### 36 Cards in this Set

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 Aufbau Principle - when building an electron configuration of atom, electrons are placed in orbitals, subshells, and shells in order of increasing energy Pauli Exclusion Principle - within an atom, no two electrons can have the same set of quantum numbers Hund's Rule - when an electron is added to a subshells, it will always occupy an empty orbital if one is available Diamagnetic - elements with all e- paired up - unaffected by magnetic fields Paramagnetic - elements with unpaired e- - affected by magnetic fields what does quantized mean? - electrons only exist at certain energy levels - " a stairs" energy of an e- En = -2.178 x 10^-18 /n^2 in joules En = the energy of the e- n= the principal quantum number relationship of energy and electronamgnetic radiation change in E = hf = hc/λ Change in E = energy change h= plank's constant f= frequency λ= wavelength c= speed of light speed of light = 3.00 x 10^8 m/sec speed of light = λf Planks's constant = 6.63 x 10^-34 joule/sec de Broglie equation = λ = h/ mv λ= wavelength m = mass of particle v = speed of particle mv= p = momentum of particle h= plank's constant Heisenbergy uncertainty principle - impossible to know both position and momentum of e- - electron orbital is probabilty of e- found in that region Quantum theory - E is quantized E = hf electron affinity - energy when an atom gains an e- electronegativiy - how strongly the nucleus attracts e- which is greater, 1st of 2nd ionization energy? 2nd > 1st ; remaining valence electron is closer to the nucleus what did Milikan do? - found charge of e- - behavior of charged oil drops in electric field What did Rutherford do? - found hard nucleus and empty atom - charged particles at gold foil What did Neils Bohr do ? -predicited that electrons orbit the nucleus at specific fixed radii can a theory be proven correct? - no ; can be supported through experimentation but not proved what did de Broglie discover? matter has wave charcateristics atomic radius - size decreases when closer to the nucleus - * top of periodic chart anion - negativley charge atom - electron is added cation - postively charge atom - electons are removed to ionize - to remove and e - forms a cation which is larger; Ca or Ca 2+ ? Ca > Ca 2+ ; Ca 2+ has less e- so nucleus pulls electons closer to the nucleus which is larger? O or O 2- ? O 2- > O ; O has less e- than O 2-, so effective nuclear charge of 0 2- is greater that O and is able to pull farther away fronm the nucleus what did Dalton do? - atoms never created or destroyed Dmiritri Medeleev and Lothar Meyer - developed periodic table what did J.J. Thompson do? - plum pudding model -wathced deflection of charges in cathode ray tube - atoms have positive and negative particles - idea of electrons and protons what do shell tell? - average distance of e- from nucleus - higher shell means more energy what does subshell tell? -shape of electron's orbital what does orbital tell? - orientation of electron's orbital in space what do the Quantum numbers describe? the position of electron - each electron has four quantum numbers what do spin tell? - direction electron spins n l ml ms - shell - subshell - orbital - spin