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30 Cards in this Set

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saturated solution
one that is, or could be, in equilibrium with undissolved solute
unsaturated solution
contains a lower conentration of solute than the saturated solution
supersautrated solution
contains a higher concentration of dissolved solute than a saturated solution of that temperature
what happens when a solution is supersaturated
excess solute stats in solution, if a small crystal is put in, excess solute comes out of solution
2 categories of solutes in H2O
nonelectrolytes and electrolytes
nonelectrolytes
doesn't conduct electricity
molecular substances that dissolve as molecules
molecules are nuetral and can't carry a currant
example of nonlectrolyte
CH3OH
electrolytes
solutes whos water solutions conduct an electric current
-produce ions in solution
-charges ions migrate in an electric field carrying a current
-ionized in H2O
what make for strong electrolytes
strong acids and bases
example of electrolyte
NaCl--> Na+ and Cl-
what are weak acids and bases in H2O
a mixture of molecules and ions
mass % formula
mass solute
-----------
total mass solute+solvent

times 100%
mole fraction formula
#moles A
---------
total# moles in mixture
molality formula
#moles of solute
----------------
1 kg of solvent


or



n
--
kg
molarity formula
#moles of solute
----------------
#liters of solution

orrr

n
--
L
what does 1 kg of H2O equal in liters
1 L H2O
when given mass percent, what do u start with
100 g solvent
when given molality, what do u start with
1000 g solvent
when given mole fraction, what do u start with
1 mol (solute+solvent)
when given molarity, what do u start with
1 L solution
what is the cardinal rule of solubility
Like dissolves Like
-polar dissolves polar (or ionic solutes)
-nonpolar dissolves nonpolar
what are the 3 steps in the formation of a solution and what kind of energy change are they
1. deltaH1- breaking up the solute into individual pieces (endo)
2. deltaH2-overcoming IMF in solvent to make room for solute (endo)
3. deltaH3- allowing solute and solvent to interact and form a solution (exo UNLESS there is no attraction)
enthalpy of solution
deltaH1+deltaH2+deltaH3
how do you decide if the solution will be endo(+) or exo(-)
depending if the deltaH3's exothermic energy is greater than the sum of deltaH1 and deltaH2
why doesnt oil mix with water?
1. low, + deltaH1 for a nonpolar solute-only condon forces have to be overcome, but learge for large nonmolar molecules
2. deltaH2 is + and large- hard to break apart H2O molecules because of its bonding
3. deltaH3 is small since there are very little interactions between polar and nonpolar molecules

soo the result solution will be large and positive because a large amount of energy would have to be spent to make the solution so it doesn't really occur
why does an ionic solute like NaCl dissolve in H20
1. deltaH1 is large and positive to break electrostatic attraction in ionic crystal
2. deltaH2 is large and positive to overcome H-bonds in H2O
3. deltaH3 is large and negative because of molecule-ion attractions

soo deltaH3 compensates for deltaH1 and 2 -dissolving increases entropy (disordre)
entropy
disorder
why do alcohols dissolve in H2O
because heydrogen bonds form between H2O and the -OH groups
how does temp affect solubility
-an increase in temp always shifts the equilibrium in favor of an endothermic process
-if the solution is +, increasing temp increases solubility
-if the solution is -, increasing temp decreases the soluility
what is different about temp and solubility of a gas
when a gas is dissolved in a liquid, gas coming out of a solutioon is endothermic, so incrasing the temp DECREASES the solubility of a gas
-all gases in H2O are less soluble with increasing temp