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370 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are joints?
the sites where two or more bones meet
NAME
is the site where two or more bones meet
joints
What are the two fundamental functions of joints?
(1)they give our skeleton mobility(2)they hold it together
NAME
thier fundamental function includes they give our skeleton mobility and hold it together
joints
Joints can also be called (1)
articulations
articulatiosn are also called (1)
joints
What is the weakest part of our skeleton?
joints
How are joints classifed?
(1)struture (2)function
NAME
are classifed according to thier structure and function
joints
How are joints classifed according to thier function?
based on the amount of movement
How are joints classifed accodring to thier structure?
based on the material binding the bones together and whether or not a joint cavity is present
acording to their fucntion, what are the different kinds of joints?
(1)synarthroses (2)amphairthroses (3)arthoses
What are synarthoses?
are immovable joints
NAME
refers to immovable joints
synarthoses
What is amphairtthroses?
are slightly immovable joints
NAME
are slightly immovalbe joints
amphiarthroses
What are arthoses?
are freely movable joints
NAME
are freely movable joints
arthoses
Where are arthoses predominate?
limbs
NAME
based on function, this type of joint is predominate in our limbs
arthoses
(1) and (2) joints are primarly restricted to the axial skelton
(1)immovalbe (20slightly movable
Where are immovalbe and slightly movable joint primarly restricted to?
the axial skeleton
What are fibrous joints?
are bones that are joined by fibrous tissue and have no joint cavity
NAME
are bones that are joined by fibrous tissue and have no joint cavity present
fibrous joints
Are fibrous joint movable?
(1)some are slight but most are immovable
What are the three types of fibrous joints?
(1)sutures (2)syndesmoses (3)gomphoses
NAME
three types of this joint are sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses
fibrous
What are sutures?
are seams that ocur only btwn bones of the skull
NAMe
are seams that ocur only btwn the bones of the skull
sutures
Sutures in during youth have a (1) that are continous w the periosteum. The result is nearly (2)
(1)junction filled w small amounts of connective tissue (2)rigid splices that bind bones together yet allow the bones to grow at thier edge during youth
What happens to the sutures during middle age?
the fibrous tissue ossifies and the skull bones fuse into a single unit
NAME
for this type of joint, the fibrous tissue ossifies and the skull bone fuse into a single unit during middle ages
sutures
What syntososes?
are bony junctions
Sutures around middle age, undergo a stage in which the fibrous tissue ossifies and the skull bones fuse into a single unit. At this point the sutures are know called (1)
synostoses
(1) around middle age, undergo a stage in which the fibrous tissue ossifies and the skull bones fuse into a single unit. At this point the sutures are know called synostoses
sutures
NAME
are bony junctions
syntososes
What are syndesmomes?
bones that are connected by a ligament
NAME
are bones that are connected by a ligament
syndesmoses
What is a ligament?
is a cord or band of fibrous tissue
NAME
is a cord or band of fibrous tissue
ligament
are syndesmomes movable?
the amount of movement depends on the length of the connectiing fibers
are sutures movable?
no
Why is the immovalbe nature of the satures a protective adaptation?
bc movement of the cranial bones would damage the brain
What are gomphoases?
is a peg socket fibrous joint
NAMe
is a peg socket fibrous joint
gomphosis
What is the only ex of a gomphosis?
the articulation of a tooth w its bony alveolar socket
NAME
a ex is the articulation of a tooth w its bony alveolar socket
gomphosis
What are periodontal ligaments?
the fibrous connection of the teeth to thier sockets
NAME
refers to the fibrous connection of the teeth to thier sockets
periodontal ligaments
What are cartilaginous joints?
are the articulating bones that are united by cartilage and lack a joint caivty
NAME
are the articulating bones that are united by the cartilage and lack a joint cavity
cartilaginous joints
What are two types of cartilaginous joints?
(1)synchondorses (2)symphyses
NAME
two types of this joint are the synchondroses and the synphyses
cartilaginous joints
What are synchondroses?
is a bar or plate of hylaine cartilage that united the bones at a junction
NAME
refers to junctions of cartilage
synchondrosis
NAME
is a bar or plate of hyaline cartilage that united the bone at a synchondrosis
synchondroses
What is a synchodrosis?
is a junction of cartilage
Are synchodrosis movalbe?
no
Virtually all synchondroses are (1)
syanarthrotic
What are the most common exs of synchondroses?
(1)epiphyseal plates connecting the diaphysis and epiphysis regions in long bones of childern
NAME
the most common ex are the epiphyseal plates connecting the diaphysis and epiphysis regions in the long bones of children
synchondroses
What is another example of a synchondroses?
the immovalbe joint btwn the coastal cartialge and the ribs
NAME
a example is the immovable joints btwn the coastal cartialge and the ribs
synchondroses
What are symphyses?
are the articular surfaces of the bones covered w hyaline cartilage which in turn is fused to an intervening pad or plate of fibrocartialge
NAME
are the articular surfaces of the bones covered w hyaline cartialge which in turn is fused to an intervening pad or plate of fibrocartilage
symphyses
NAME
this tissue acts as a shock absorber and permits limted amoount of movement at the (1) joint
symphyses
fibrocartialge acts as a (1) at the symphyses joints
shock absorber and permiteds a limted amount of movement
What are synovial joints?
are those in which the articulating bones are seperated by a fluid containing joint cavity
NAME
are those in which the articulating bones are seperated by a fluid containg joint cavity
synovial joints
NAME
are amphiartohrotic joints designed for strength w flexiability
symphyses
Symphyses are ampiartohrotic joints designed for (1)
strenght w flexaiblity
are symphyses movable?
slightly
NAME
a ex includes the intervertabral joints and the pubic symphysis of the plevis
symphyses
Give (2) exs of symphyses?
(1)intevertebral joints (2)the pubic symphysis of the pelivs
are synovial joints movable?
yes
What are the (5) distinguishing features of synovial joints?
(1)articular cartilage (2)joint cavity (3)articular capsule (4)synovail fluid (5)reinforcing ligaments
What keeps bones from being crushed?
spongy cushions absorb compression placed on the joint
What are the two layers of the articular capsule?
(1)fibrous capsule (2)synovial membrane
What is the fibrous capsule?
is the external layer of the articular capsule that has dense irregular connective tissue
NAME
is the external layer of the articular capsule that has dense irregular connective tissue
fibrous capsule
Why are the bones not pulled apart at the synovial joints?
bc the fibrous capsule strengthens the joint
(1) strengthens the joint to that the bones are not pulled apart
fibrous capsule
What is the synovial membrane?
is the inner layer of the joint articular capsule that has loose connective tissue
NAME
is the inner layer of the joint articular capsule that has loose connective tissue
synovail membrane
a small amount of (1) occupies all the free spaces within the joint capsule
synovial fluid
NAME
reduces friction btwn the cartilages
synovial fluid
synovial fluid provides a slippery weight bearing film that reduces (1)
friction btwn the cartilages
(1)is forced from the cartilages when a joint is compressed
synovial fluid
When is synovial fluid forced from the cartilages?
when a joint is compressed
What weeping lubrication?
refers to when synovail fluid seeps back into the atricular cartilages when the pressure from the joint is releived
NAME
refers to when synovial fluid seeps back into the atricular cartilages when the pressure from the joint is released
weeping lubrication
How are synovial joint reinforced and strengthened?
by a number of bandlike ligaments
(1) are reinforced and strengthened by a number of bandlike ligaments
synovial joints
What kind of ligaments most often reinforce and strengthen synovial joints?
(1)capsular ligaments
Capsular ligaments most often (1)
stregnth and reinforce synovial joints
Caspular ligaments are also called (1)
intrinsic ligaments
(1) ligaments are also called intrinsic ligaments
caspular
What are capsular ligaments?
are thickened parts of the fibrous capsule
NAME
are thickened parts of the fibrous capsule
capsular ligaments
What are the differ types of capsular ligaments?
(1)extracapular (2)intracapsular
Are people that are said to be double jointed really double jointed? Explain why?
no, there joint capsules and ligaments are more strecthy and looser than average
T or F
people are really double jointed
false
articular capsule and ligaments are richly supplied w (1)
sensory nerve endings
(1) help to mantain muscle tone and montior joint postion
sensory nerve endings
sensory nerve endings help to mantain (1)
muscle tone and montior joint postion
along with sensory nerve endings, synovial joints are also supplied w (1)
blood vessels that supply the synovial membrane
Other speacil featuers of synovial joints include (1) and (2)
(1)fatty pads (2)articular discs
NAME
some of this type of joint have fatty pads nad articualr discs
synovial joints
What are some examples of synovial joints w fatty pads?
hip and knee joints
hip and knee joints are ex(s) of synovial joints w (1)
fatty pads
articualr discs are also caleld (1)
menisci
(1) are also called menisci
articular discs
What are articular discs?
are wedges of fibrocartialge seperating the articular surfaces
NAME
are wedges of fibrocartialge sepearting the articular surface
articular discs
What are the benifts of articular discs?
they improve the fit btwn the articulating bone ends, making the joint more stable and minimizing the wear and tear on the joint surfaces
NAME
improve the fit btwn the articulating bone ends, making the joints more stable and minimizing the wear and tear on the joint surfaces
articular discs
Give a ex where arctiuclar discs ocur? (2)
(1)knee (2)jaw
NAME
ocur in the knee, jaw, and a few other joints
arcticular discs
T or F
bursae and tendon sheaths are part of synovial joints
false
What do bursae and tendon sheaths do?
act as "ball bearings" to reduce the friction btwn adjacent structures during joint activty
NAME
act as "ball bearings" to reduce the friction btwn adjacent structures during joint activity
bursae and tendon sheaths
What are bursae?
are flattened fibrous sacs lined w synovial membrane and containing a thin film of synovail fluid
NAME
are flattened fibrous sacs lined s synovail membrane and containg a thin film of synovail fluid
bursae
NAME
are common where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones rub together
bursae
Where are bursae common?
where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones rub together
What is a bunion?
is an enlarged bursa at the base of the big toe
NAME
is an enlarged bursa at the base of the big toe
bunion
What is a tendon sheath?
is an elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon subjected to friction
NAME
is an elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon subjected to friction
tendon sheath
Why do joints need to be constantly streched and compresed?
bc they must be stabilized so that they do not dislocate
Joints need to be constantly (1) and (2), they must be stabilized so that they do not disloacte
(1)streched (2)compressed
What three factors that stability of joints depend on? (3)
(1)shapes of the articular surface (2)number and positioning of ligaments (3)muscle tone
T or F
articular surfaces play a minor role in the stability of the joints
true
the (1)and (2) provide the best ex of a joint made stable by the shape of its articular surfaces
(1)ball (2)deep socket
the ball and deep socket provide the best ex of a joint made stable by the (1)
shape of its articualr surface
The more (1) a joint has the stronger it is
ligaments
The more ligaments a joint, has the (1)
stronger it is
T or F
streched ligaments stay streched
true
Ligaments can only strech (1)
so far
T or F
when ligaments are the major means of bracing a joint, the joint is not very stable
true
when ligaments are the major means of bracing a joint, are they very stable?
no
Why are ligaments are the major means of bracing a joint, why are they not stable?
bc ligaments can only strech so far befoer they snap
For most joints, (1)are the most stablizing factors
muscle tendons that cross the joint
For most joints, muscle tendons that cross the joint are the (1) stabilizing factors
most
T or F
for most joints, muscle tendons that cross the joints are not the most stabilizing factors
false
What is a muscle's orgin?
is the attachment of muscles to immovalbe or slightly immovalbe bones
NAME
refers to the attachment of muscles to immovable or slightly immovable bones
a muscle's orgin
What is the insertion?
is the attachment site of a muscles to a movable bone
NAME
is the attachment site of muscles to a movable bone
insertion
Every skeletal muscle of the body is attached to the bone or other connective tissue strutures at two points called (1) and (2)
(1)origin (2)insertion
How does muscle movement ocur?
when musles contract across joints and thier insertions moves toward the orgin
NAME
ocurs when musles contract across the joints and thier insertion moves toward their orgin
body movement
Range of motion allowed by synovial joints can vary from (1) to (2) to (3) to (4)
(1)nonaxial movement (2)uniaixal movement (3)biaxial movement (4)multiaxial movement
What is nonaxial movement?
is slipping movements w no movement around the axis
NAME
is slipping movements w no movment around the axis
nonaxial movemnts
What are uniaxial movements?
are movements in one plane
NAME
are movements in one plane
uniaxial movments
What is biaxial movements?
is movement in two planes
NAME
is movement in two planes
biaxial movements
What are multiaxial movement?
is movement in or around all three planes
NAME
is movement in or around all three planes
multiaixial movements
T or F
the range of motion varies greatly in different people
true
What are three general types of movement?
(1)gliding (2)angular movements (3)rotation
NAME
is the simplest joint movement
gliding movements
Gliding movements are the (1) movements
simplest
What are gliding movments?
are when one flat, or nearly flat bones surface glides or slips of another
NAME
is one flatm or nearly flatm bone surface glides or slips over another
gliding
What are angular movements?
is the increase or decrease in the angle btwn two bones
NAME
is the increase or decrease in the angle btwn two bones
angular movements
What is flexion?
is the bending movement that decreases the angle of the joint and brings the articulating bones closer together
NAME
is the bending movement that decreases the angle of the joint and brings the articulating bones closer together
flexion
Give some exs of flexion? (2)
(1)bending the head foward to the chest (2)bending of the body trunk or knee from a straight to an angled postion
NAME
exs include the bending of the head foward to the chest and the bending of the body trunk or knee from a striaght to an angled postion
flexion
What are extension?
is the movement along the sagittal plane that increases the angle btwn the articulating bones
NAME
is the movement along the sagittal plane that increases the angle btwn the articulating bones
extension
NAME
exs include the straightening of a flexed neck, body trunk, elbow, or knee
extension
Give some examples of a extension?
the straightening of a flexed neck, body trunk, elbow or knee
What is hyperextension?
is the bending of the head backward beyond its striaght postion
NAME
is the bending of the head backward beyond its striaght postion
hyperextension
What is dorsiflexion?
is the lifting of the foot so that its superior surface appears
NAME
is the lifting of the foot so that its superior surface appears
dorsiflexion
What is plantar flexion?
is depressing the foot
NAME
is depresing the foot
plantar flexion
What is abduction?
is movement of a limb away from the midline of the body along the frontal plane
NAME
is the movement of a limb away from the midline of the body along the frontal plane
abduction
Give a ex of abduction
raising the arm laterally
NAME
raising the arm laterally is a example
abduction
What is adduction?
is the movement of a limb toward the body midline
NAME
is the movement of a limb toward the body midline
adduction
What is circumduction?
is the moving of a limb so that it describes a cone shape
NAME
is the moving of a limb so that it describes a cone shape
circumduction
What is rotation?
is the turning of a bone around its own long axis
NAME
is the turning of a bone around its own long axis
rotation
What kind of rotations are there? (2)
medial and lateral
(1) and (2) refer to the movement of the radius and ulna
(1)supination (2)pronation
Supination and pronation refer to the movement of the (1) and (2)
(1)radius (2)ulna
What does supination mean?
turning backward
NAME
means turning backward
supination
What does pronation mean?
turning foward
NAME
means turning foward
pronation
What is inversion?
is when the sole of the foot turns medially
NAME
is when the sole of the foot turns medially
inversion
What is eversion?
is when the sole faces laterlly
NAME
is when the sole faces laterally
eversion
Inversion and eversion are (1)
speacil movements of the foot
What is protraction?
refers to when the mandible is protracted when you jut out your jaw
NAME
refers to when the mandible is rptacted when you jut out your jaw
protraction
What is retraction?
refers to when the mandible is retracted when you move your jaw back to its normal postion
NAME
refers to when the mandible is retracted when you move your jaw back to its normal postion
retraction
What is elevation?
means lifting a body part superiorly
NAME
means lifting a body part superiorly
elevation
What is depression?
is moving the elevated part inferiorly
NAME
is moving the elevated part inferiorly
depression
What is oppostion?
is the movement when you touch your thumb to the tips of the other fingers on the same hand
NAME
is the movement when you touch your thumb to the tips of the other fingers on the same hand
oppostion
Do synovial joints have a common structural plan?
no
What are the six major catergoies of synovial joints based on the shape of their articular surfaces?
(1)plane (2)hinge, (3)pivot (4)condyloid (5)sadle (6)ball and socket joints
What are plane joints?
are the articular surfaces that are essentially flat and they allow only short gliding or transiontal movements
NAME
are the articular surfaces that are essentially flat and they allow only short or gliding or transitonal movements
plane joints
What is the only example of nonaxial joints?
gliding joints
Gliding joints are the only example of (1)
nonaxial joints
What are hinge joints?
are cylindrical projection of one bone that fits into a trough shaped surface on another
NAME
is a cylindrical projection of one bone that fits into a trough shaped surface on another
hinge joints
What is a pivot joint?
is when the rounded end of one bone protrudes into a "sleeve" or ring composed of bone
NAME
is when the rounded end of one bone protudes into a "sleeve" or ring composed of bone
pivot joint
Condyloid joints are also called (1)
ellipsoidal joints
(1) joints are also called ellipsoidal joints
condyloid
What are condyloid joints?
are joints in which the oval articular surface of one bone fits into a complementary depression in another
NAME
are joints in which the oval articular surface of one bone fits into a complementray depression in another
condyloid joints
Give ex of condyloid joints?
the wrist and knuckle joints
NAME
exs of these joints are the wrist and knuckle joints
condyloid joints
What are saddle joints?
are shaped like a saddle and allow greater freedom of movement
NAME
are shaped like a saddle and allow greater freedom of movement
saddle joint
What is a ex of a saddle joint?
the joints in your thumbs
NAME
a ex of this joint are the joints in your thumb
saddle joints
What is a ball and socket joint?
are multiaxial and are the most free moving of the synovial joints
NAME
are multiaxial and are the most free moving of the synovial joints
ball and socket joints
Give ex (2) of the ball and socket joints?
(1)shoulder (2)hip joints
NAME
ex of these joints are the shoulder and hip joints
ball and socket joints
NAME
is the most largest and complex joint in the body
knee
The knee is the most (1) and (2) joint in the body
(1)largest (2)complex
What are the three joints of the knee?
(1)emorpatellar joint (2)tibiofemoral joint (3)menisci
NAME
this joint is made up of three joints; emorpatellar joint, tibiofemoral joint, and the menisci
knee joint
Where is the femorpatellar joint located?
btwn the patella and the lower end of the femur
NAME
this joint of the knee is btwn the patella and the lower end of the femur
femorpatellar joint
Where is the tibiofemoral joint located in the knee joint?
lateral and medial joints
NAME
are the lateral and medial joints of the knee
tibiofemoral joints
What is the menisci?
is a C shaped joint of the knee
NAME
is a C shaped of the knee
menisci
How is the knee joint unique?
bc the joint cavity is only partially enclosed by a capsule
NAMe
for this joint, the joint cavity is only partially enclosed by a capsule
knee joint
What are three ligaments found in the knee joint where the capsule is not located?
(1)patellar ligament (2)medial and lateral patellar retincaula
Patellar ligament, and the medial and lateral patellar retincaula are three (1)
broad ligaments of the patella
When physcians tap your knee to test your reflex, what ligament are the tapping?
your patellar ligament
The extracapsular and capsular ligaments all act to prevent (1) of the knee
hyperextension
What are three ligaments that help that are streched when the knee is extended? (3)
(1)olbique popliteal ligament (2)arcaute popliteal ligament (3)arcuate poplietal ligament
What is the posterior cruciate ligament?
prevents the backward displacement of the tibia or foward sliding of the femur
NAME
this ligament prevents the backward displacement of the tibia or foward sliding of the femur
posterior cruciate ligament
Muscle tone of the (1) muscles is important in knee stability
quadriceps and semimembranosus muscles
Muscle tone of the qaudriceps and semimembranosus muscles is important in (1)
knee stability
the knees have a build in (1) that provides steady support for the body in standing
locking device
Of all the body joints, the (1) are the most susceptable to sports injuries
knee
Why is the knee the most susceptbale joint to sports injuries?
bc of thier high reliance an nonarticular factors for stability and the fact that they carry the body's wieght
The knee can absorb (1) force but not (2) force
(1)vertical (2)horizontal
The knee is vunerable to (1) forces
horizontal
What are the three common ligaments damaged to the knee (think 3 common C's)
(1)collateral ligaments (2)cruciate ligaments (3)cartilages
Injuries that affect the (1) in the knee are become more common particaully in womens sports
aneterior crucialte ligament
What is the shoulder joint?
is the most freely moving joint of the body
NAME
is the most freely moving joint in the body
shoulder joint
The shoulder joint is a (1) joint
ball and socket joint
the hip joint is a (1)joint
ball and socket joint
NAME (2)
both are exs of a ball and socket joint
(1)hip and (2)shoulder joint
What are two ligaments making up the shoulder joint?
(1)coracohumeral ligament (2)3 glenohumeral ligament
What is the coracohumeral ligament?
provides the only strong thickening of the capsule and helps suppport the weight of the upper limb
NAME
is a shoulder joint that provides the only strong thickening of the capsule and helps support the weight of the upper limb
coracohumeral ligament
NAME
the ligaments of this joint are coracohumeral ligament and the 3 glenohumeral ligaments
shoulder joint
What is the glenohumeral ligament?
helps to strengthen the front of the capsule of the shoulder joint but are weak and may even be absent
NAME
this ligament helps to strengthen the front of the capsule of the shoulder joint but are weak and may even be absent
glenohumeral ligament
What is the roatator cuff?
is four tendons that encircles the shoulder joint and blends w the articular capsule
NAME
is four tendons that encircle the shoulder joint and blends w the articular capsule
rotator cuff
What is a common basketball injury?
your rotator cuff can be severely streched
Describe the movement of the hip joint
movement can ocur in all possible planes but are limited by the joint's strong ligaments and its deep socket
NAME
for this joint, movement can ocur in all possible planes but are limited by the joint's strong ligaments and its deep socket
hip joint
What are the differ ligaments of the hip joint? (4)
(1)iliofemoral ligament (2)pubofemoral ligament (3)ischofemoral ligament (4)ligament of the head of the femur
What is the ilofemoral ligament?
is a V shaped ligament of the hip joint
NAME
is a V-shaped ligament of the hip joint
ilofemoral ligament
What is the pubofemoral ligament?
is a traingular thickening of the inferior part of the capsule of the hip joint
NAME
is a triangular thickening of the inferior part of the capsule of the hip joint
pubofemoral ligament
What is the ischiofemoral ligament?
is a spiraling posteriorly located ligament of the hip joint
NAME
is a spiraling posteriorly located ligament of the hip joint
ischiofemoral ligament
the ligament of the head of the femuer is also called the (1)
ligamentium teres
What is the ligamentium teres?
the ligament of the head of the femur
NAME
refers to the ligament of head of the femur
ligamentum teres
What is the function of the ligamentum teres?
it is unclear
NAME
the function of this ligament in the hip joint is unclear
ligamentum teres
What is the elbow joint?
provides a stable and smoothly operating hinge that allows flexion and extension only
NAME
provdies a stable and operating hinge that allows flexion and extension only
elbow joint
What are the ligaments of the elbow joint?
(1)annular ligaments (2)ulnar collateral ligament (3)radial collateral ligament
NAME
this ligaments of this joint are the annular ligaments, ulnar collarteral ligaments, and redial collarteral ligament
elbow joint
What is annular ligament?
surrounds the head of the radius
NAME
surrounds the head of the radius
annular ligament
What are the two strong caspular ligaments that restircted the side to side movements of the elbow joint?
(1)ulnar collateral ligament (2)radial collateral ligament
What are the ulnar collateral and radial collateral ligament?
are two strong capsular ligaments that restrict the side to side movement of the elbow joint
What are the most common trauma induced joint injuries (2)?
(1)sprains (2)dislocations
Altough sprains and dislocations are the most common trauma induced joint injuries, (1) injuries are equally threatening to atheltes
cartilage
What is a sprain?
is when the ligament reinforcing a joint are strecthed or torn
NAMe
is when the ligaments reinforcing a joint are streched or torn
sprain
Partially torn ligaments can (1)
repair themsevles but take a while bc they are poorly vascularized
What happens when ligaments are sverly damaged by a sprain?
they must be sugrically removed abd replaced w subsitue ligaments bc they are so hard to repair
What is arthroscopic surgury?
a procedure in which damaged cartilage is removed and enables patient to be our of the hosptial the same day
NAME
is a procedure in which damaged cartilage is removed and enables the patient to be out of the hospital in the same day
arthroscopic surgury
Also, overuse damge to the (1) of tther joints is become increasinyl common
articualr cartilages
Why does cartilge stay torn?
bc it can rarely obtain noursihment and it is avascular
Cartilage if torn will (1)
stay torn
What is dislocation?
cours when bones are fored out of alignment
NAME
occurs when bones are forced out alignment
dislocaion
What are things that are commonly dislocated?
joints of the (1)thumbs (2)fingers (3)jaw (4)shoulders
Joints of the thumbs, fingers, jaws, and shoulders are commonly (1)
dislocated
What is subluxation?
is a partial dislocation of a joint
NAME
is paratial dislocation of a joint
subluxation
Why are repeat dislocations of the same joint common?
bc the intial dislocation streches the joint capsule and ligament
Repeat dislocations in the (1) joint are common
repeat
What are some inflammatory conidtions that affect the joints?
(1)burstis (2)tendonitis (3)various forms of arthtis
burstis, tendonitis, and various forms of arthis are (1) conditions that affect the (2)
(1)inflammatory (2)joints
What is bursitis?
is inflammation of a bursa and is usally caused by a blow or friction
NAMe
is an inflammation of a bursa and is usally caused by a blow or friction
bursitis
Falling one one's knee may result in (1)
bursitis
Prolonged leaning of the one's elbow may result in (1)
student elbow
What is tendonitis?
is the inflammation of the tendon sheaths typically caused by overuse
NAME
is the inflammation of tendon sheaths typically caused by overuse
tendonitis
What is arthrits?
describes that 100 different types of inflammatory or degenerative diseases that damage the joints
NAME
refers to the 100 different types of inflammatory or degenerative diseases that damage the joints
arthritis
NAME
is the most wide spreading crippling disease in the USA
arithis
Arithis is the most wide spread (1) in the USA
crippling disaese
Acute forms of arithis usally result from (1)
bacetria invasion
What are some chronic forms of arthitis? (3)
(1)osteoarthiritis (2)rheumatoid arithis (3)gouty arthritis
What does OA stand for?
Osteoarthritis
NAME
is the most common chronic arthrits
OA
NAME
is the most common chronic arithis
OA
OA is the most common (1)
chronic arthistis
NAME
is called the "wear and tear arthirits"
OA
What is theory on what causes OA?
that the normal joint prompts the realease of enzymes that break down the articuluar cartilage
is the cause of OA known?
no
What are the symptoms of OA?
(1)stiffness (2)crounching noices when they move
NAME
sympoptoms include stiffness and crounching noises when they move
OA
The course of OA is usally (1) and (2)
(1)slow (2)irreversible
What is RA?
is a chronic inflammtory disorder w an insidious onset
NAME
is a chronic inflammtory disorder w an insidious onset
RA
What does RA stand for?
rheymatoid arithis
Both RA and OA, affect men more than women, or women more than men?
women more than men
RA is a (1) disease
autoimmune
What is autoimmune disease?
is a disorder in which the body's immune system attack's its own tissues
NAME
is a disorder in which the body's immune system attack's its own tissues
autoimmune system
What is pannus?
is an abnormal tissue that clings to the articualar cartilage
NAME
is an abnormal tissue that clings to the articular cartilage
pannus
What is the proccess of RA (symptoms?
(1)synovial fluid accumulates and thickens into a pannus (2)scar tissue forms and connects the bone ends (3)the scar tissue ossifes and the bone ends fuse together
What is anklosis?
is the end conidtion of RA in which the scar tissue ossfies and the bone ends fuse together often resulting in deformed fingers
NAME
is the end condition of RA in which the scar tissues ossifies and the bone ends fuse toegher often forming deformed fingers
anklosis
What are some promising drugs for RA?
biologic response modifers which neutralize some of the harmful properties of the inflammatory chemicals
Is there a cure for RA?
no
What is gouty arthristis?
is a inflammtory response leading into an agonizingly painful attack
NAME
is an inflammtory response leading into an agonizingly painful attack
gouty arthritis
gouty arthristid is often at the (1)
base of the toe
(1) arthrisit is often at the base of the toe
gouty
How causes gouty arthrisits?
when blood levels of uric acid rise excesviely, they may depostit needle shaped crystals in the soft tissues of the joints
NAME
is caused when when blood levels of uric acid rise excesviely, they may depostit needle shaped crystals in the soft tissues of the joints
gouty arthritis
Is gout far more common in males than females or females than males?
males than females
Why is gout far more common in males than females?
bc males naturally have higher levels of uric acid in the blood
is there a cure for gout?
yes
T or F
virtuall everyone has OA at some point in there 70's
true