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175 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is matter?
Anything that occupies space and has mass.
What is energy?
The capacity to do work, or to put matter in motion.
What are the two types of energy?
Potential and Kinetic.
What is kinetic energy?
Energy in action.
What is potential energy?
stored energy that has the capability to do work but is not presently doing so.
What are four forms of energy?
Chemical, Electrical, Mechanical, Radiant.
What is chemical energy?
the form of energy stored in the bonds of chemical substances.
What is electrical energy?
The result from the movement of charged particles.
How are electric currents generated in the body?
When charged particles called ions move along or across cell membranes.
How does the nervous system use electrical currents?
It uses electric currents, or nerve impulses, to transmit messages from one part of the body to another.
T/F All energy conversions in the body liberate heat?
All matter is composed of what?
What are elements?
unique substances that connot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical methods.
Which 4 elements make up 96% of body weight?
Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen
What are physical properties of elements?
Those we can detect with our senses.
What are chemical properties of elements?
pertain to the way atoms interact with other atoms (bonding behavior)
What are orbitals
regions around the nucleus in which a given electron or electron pair is likely to be found most of the time.
Atomic number
Equal to the number of protons. Written as a subscript on the left side of the atomic symbol.
Mass number
The sum of the protons and neutrons of an atom. Written as a superscript to the left of the atomic symbol.
Atoms with the same number of protons but differing numbers of neutrons.
Atomic weight
The average of the relative weights of all the isotopes of an element, taking into account their relative abundance in nature.
the instability of heavier isotopes being unstable and decomposing spontaneously into more stable forms.
Dense nuclear particles are composed of even smaller particles called what?
the time required for a radioisotope to lose one-half of it's activity.
All types of radioactivity damage living cells, T/F
Which emmission has the lowest penetrating power and is least damaging? Which has the highest?

What is a molecule?
A combination of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
What is a compound?
When two or more different atoms combine.
Are compounds chemically pure?
What is a mixture?
substances composed of two or more components that are physically intermixed.
What are the three basic types of mixtures?
Solution, Colloid, Suspension
What are solutions?
Homogenous mixtures of componenets that may be solids, liquids or gases
The substance present in greater amounts in a solution.
The substance present in smaller amounts in a solution
What is the chief solvent in the body?
What are characteristic of a true solution?
Usually transparent
Solvents are not visible to the naked eye
Solvents to not settle out
Solvents do not scatter light
What is molarity?
The concentration of a solution in terms of moles per litre
What is a mole of an element or compound?
The atomic weight or molecular weight weighed out in grams.
What is a colloid?
heterogenous mixtures.
What are the properties of a colloid?
Often appear translucent or milky
Particles do not settle out
Scatters light
sol-gel transformation
the ability of a colloid to change reversibly from a fluid to a more solid (or gel) state.
What are suspensions?
heterogenous mixtures with large, often visible solutes that tend to settle out.
What are three differences between mixtures and compounds
Mixtures do not involve chemical bonding.
Mixtures can be separated by phsycial means.
Mixtures can be homogenous or heterogenous.
Chemical bond
an energy relationship between the electrons of reacting atoms.
Ionic bond
a chemical bond between atoms formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another
What is a crystal?
large arrays of anions and cations held together with ionic bonds
Covalent bonds
A form of bonding in which two atoms share electrons.
hydrogen bonds
A weak bond in which a hydrogen atom forms a bridge between two electron hungry atoms.
Chemical reactions
a process that occurs whenever chemical bonds are formed, rearranged, or broken
What are the three recognizable patterns of most chemical reactions?
synthesis, decomposition, exchange reactions, and oxidation-reduction reactions
What is a synthesis or combination reaction?
When atoms or molecules combine to form a larger, more complex molecule.
What is a decomposition reaction?
when a molecule is broken down itno smaller molecules or its constituent atoms.
What is an exchange or displacement reaction?
parts of the reactant molecules change partners producing different product molecules. Involves both synthesis and decomposition.
What is an oxidation-reduction reaction?
a special type of exchange reaction in which electrons are exchanged between the reactants.
electron donor
The reactant losing the electrons. It is oxidized.
electron acceptor
the reactant gaining the electrons. It is reduced.
Exergonic reactions
reactions that release energy
Edergonic reactions
reactions that absorb energy
What factors affect the rate of chemical reactions?
Temperature, Concentration, Particle size, Catalysts.
Why does particle size affect the rate of chemical reactions?
Because smaller particles move faster than larger particles at any given them a better chance of making collisions.
substances that increase the rate of chemical reactions wihtout themselves becoming chemically changed or part of the product.
What are biological catalysts called?
What is biochemistry?
The study of chemical composition and reactions of living matter.
What are organic compounds?
Compounds that contain carbon, are covalently bonded, and can be large.
What properties of water make it so vital?
High heat capacity
High heat of vaporization
Polar solvent properties
How does water's high heat capacity help the body?
It absorbs and releases large amounts of heat before changing appreciably in temperature itself. prevents sudden changes in temperature caused by external factors. As part of the blood, it redistributes heat among body tissues.
How does water's high heat of vaporization help the body?
Sweat and evaporation take with it lots of heat, providing a cooling mechanism for the body.
How does water's polar solvent properties help the body?
It creates the body's major transport medium by dissolving molecules. Forms hydration layers around large charged molecules and prevents them from selling out.
How does water reactivity help the body?
In hydrolysis reactions, a water molecule gets added to each bond to be broken. When a large carb or protein is synthesized, a water molecule is removed for every bond formed in dehydration synthesis.
How does water's cushioning properties help the body?
Forms a resilient cushion around certain body organs, protecting them from trauma.
What is hydrolisys
a decomposition reaction in which a water molecule is formed for every bond broken.
What is dehydration synthesis
a reaction in which a water molecule is removed for every bond created when large carb or protein molecules are created from smaller molecules.
What is a salt
an ionic compound containing cations other than H+ and anions other than OH-
What is an electrolyte?
substances that conduct an electrical current in solution. All ions are electrolytes.
Polyatomic ions
groups of atoms that bear an overall charge
What are the most plentiful salts in the body?
Calcium phosphates (make the bones and teeth hard)
Sodium and potassium ions are essential for what?
nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction
What is one of the most crucial homeostatic roles of the kidneys?
maintaining proper ionic balance in our body fluids
Are acids and bases electrolytes?
What is an acid?
a substance that releases H+ in detectable amounts, a proton donor.
A molecular formula for an acid is easy to recognize why?
Because the hydrogen is written first.
What are some characteristic of acids?
Sour taste, can react with many metals, can burn a hole in your rug.
What are some characteristics of bases?
Bitter taste, feel slippery. Proton acceptors..they take up H+ in detectable amounts.
What is a neutralization reactin?
When and acid and a base react with each other in a displacement reaction to form water and a salt.
What is a buffer?
a chemical system that resists abrupt changes in the pH of body fluids.
What makes the best buffers?
Weak acid, weak base
What is a carbohydrate?
an organic compound composed or carbon, hydrogen & oxygen. Includes starches, sugars, and cellulose.
What are the classifications of carbohydrates?
monosaccharide, disaccharide, polysaccharide
What is a monosaccharide?
a simple sugar, a single chain or single ring structure containing from 3-7 carbons.
What is the general formula for a monosaccharide?
Name five monosaccharides?
What is a dissacharide?
double sugar, formed when two monosaccharides are joined by dehydration synthesis.
Name 3 important dissacharides in the body
Can dissacharides pass through cell membranes?
No, they are too large. They must be digested into their simple sugars first via hydrolysis.
What is a polysaccharide?
long chains of simple sugars linked together by dehydration synthesis
Chainlike molecules made up of many similar units is known as what?
T/F The larger the carbohydrate, the more solubule it is in water
Name two important polysaccharides in the body
starch, glycogen
What is starch?
a storage carbohydrate found in plants.
What is glycogen?
the storage carbohydrate of animal tissues.
Where is glycogen stored?
primarily in the skeletal muscle and liver cells.
What are the functions of carbohydrates?
The major function is to provide a ready easily used souce of cellular food.
Small amounts are used for structural purposes and small amounts attach to the external surface of cells where they guide cellular interactions.
When ATP supplies are sufficient, what happens to carbohydrates?
They are turned into glycogen or fat and stored.
What are lipids?
organic compounds that are insoluble in water, have carbon, hydrogen and oxygen but less oxygen than in carbs. and some have phosphorus
Name three types of lipids
What are triglycerides
neutral fats. Called fats when solid or oils when liquid. Made up of fatty acids and glycerol in a 3:1 ratio.
What is a fatty acid
linear chains of carbon and hydrogen with an organic acid group at one end.
What is glycerol
a modified simple sugar
Where are deposits of triglyerides mainly found?
beneath the skin
What determines how solid a fatty acid is at a given temperature?
the length of the triglycerides fatty acid chain and the degree of saturation with H atoms
Fatty acid chains with only single bonds between the carbons is referred to as what?
Fatty acid chains with one or more double bonds are called what?
monounsaturated and polyunsaturated respectively
the double bonds of a fatty acid result in what formation and state?
they are kinked so they can not be packed closely together...they they are oils are room temperature
Shorter fatty acid chains or unsaturated fatty acids are typical of what? Longer and saturated are typical of what?
1. plant lipids
2. animal fats
Which type of fatty acid is considered more healthy?
What are trans fats?
oils that have been solidified by the addition of H atoms at sites of double carbon bonds.
What is a phospholipid?
a modified triglyceride in which a diglyceride with a phosphorus containing group and two fatty acid chains.
What is a molecule that has both polar and nonpolar regions called?
What is a steroid?
flat molecules made of four interlocking hydrocarbon rings.
What are the properties of a steriod?
Fat soluble, contain little oxygen.
What is the single most important molecule in steroid chemistry?
Why is cholesterol important?
essential for life, found in cell membranes, the raw material of vitamin d.
What are eicosanoids?
diverse lipids chiefly derived from a 20 carbon fatty acid found in all cell membranes.
What is the most important eicosanoid?
What is the full set of proteins made by the body called?
What is a protein?
basic structural material of the body, contain cargon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and sometimes sulfur and phosphorus. They have the most varied functions in the body.
What are amino acids?
molecules that are the building blocks of proteins
How many common types of amino acids are there?
All amino acids have which two functional groups?
a basic group called amine and an organic acid group.
All amino acids are identical except for what?
Their R group
What is a proten (2)?
long chains of amino acids joined together by dehydration synthesis with the amine end of one linked to the acid end of the next
What is the bond called between amino acids that are joined together?
peptide bond
What is the term for two amino acids joined together? Three? More than ten?
What is the term for large complex molecules containing from 100 to over 10K amino acids?
Proteins can be described in terms of what four structural levels?
primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary
the linear sequence of amino acids composing the polypeptide chain is called what?
primary structure
What are the two types of secondary structures?
Alpha-helix (like a slinky) and beta-pleated sheet (linked side by side to form a pleated ribbonlike structure
What stabilizes the alpha helix
The hydrogen bonds formed between the NH and CO groups. Hydrogen bonds always link different parts of the same chain together.
What do the hydrogen bonds link in beta-pleated sheet structure?
they can link either different parts of the same chain together or they can link together different polypeptide chains
Can a single polypeptide chain exhibit both types of secondary structure at various places along its length?
How is tertiary structure acheived?
alpha and beta regions of the polypeptide chain fold upon one another to produce a compact, ball like or globular molecule.
How is teriary structure maintained?
with both covalent and hydrogen bonds between amino acids that are often far apart.
What is it called when two or more polypeptide chains aggregate in a regular manner to form a complex protein?
quaternary structure
What are the two classifications of proteins based on their appearance?
fibrous, globular
What are the characteristic of fibrous proteins?
extended and strandlike, insoluble in water, very stable.
Why are fibrous proteins called structural proteins?
Its characteristics of being insoluble in water and stable make it ideal for providing mechanical support and tensile strength to the body's tissues.
What are the characteristics of globular proteins?
compact, spherical, exhibiting at least tertiary structure, water soluble, chemically active, play a vital role in virtually all biological processes.
Why are globular proteins considered functions proteins?
They play a role in virtually all biological processes, some provide immunity, others regulate growth and development, others are catalysts.
What happens to proteins when pH levels drop or when temperature rises above normal levels?
the protein becomes denatured - unfolds and loses its 3D shape.
Is denaturing reversible?
yes, unless the enviromental change is extreme in which case it becomes irreversibly denatured.
What are active sites?
regions of specific arrangements of atoms that fit and interact chemically with other molecules of complementary shape and charge
What two groups of proteins are intimately involved in the normal functioning of all sells?
Molecular chaperones and enzymes
Molecular chaperones, or chaperonins, do what?
globular proteins that help proteins acheive their 3D structure and ensure that the folding is quick and accurate. They also protect proteins from traumatizing stimuli.
What are enzymes?
globular proteins that act as biological catalysts.
In some cases, enzymes have two parts. Name them and give their collective name
an apoenzyme (the protein portion) and a cofactor (needed to assist the reaction in some particular way). Their collective name is holoenzyme.
Most organic cofactors are derived from vitamins. This type of cofactor is more accurately called what?
A coenzyme
Most enzymes can be recognized by what ending?
Enzymes are named for the type of reaction they catalyze. Name them.
Hydrolases - adds water during hydrolysis reactions.
Oxidases - adds oxygen
Why are some enzymes produced in inactive form?
with some enzymes, if they were produced in active form, would destroy the organ that produced them.
What is activation energy?
The amount of enery needed to break the bonds of the reactants to they can rearrange themselves and become the product.
What are nucleic acids
the largest molecules in the body. Composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and phosphours.
What are the structural unites of nucleic acids?
What are the components of a nucleotide?
a nitrogen containing base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group.
What are the five major varieties of nitrogen containing bases that contribute to nucleotide structure?
Adenine (A)
Guanine (G)
Cytosine (C)
Thymine (T)
Uracil (U)
Adenine and Guarine are large, two ring bases called what?
Cytosine, Thymine and Uracil are smaller single ring bases called what?
The synthesis of a nucleotide involves the attachement of a base to the pentose sugar to form what? Then this becomes a nucleotide when it bonds to the phosphate group
What are the two major classes of nucleic acids?
deoxyribosenucleic acid
ribosenucleic acid
What is DNA
long double-stranded polymer - a double chain of nucleotides with the bases A, G, C & T and its pentose sugar is deoxyribose. Is found in the nucleus of the cell where is constitues the genetic material called genes or genome.
What are the 2 fundamental roles of DNA?
It replicates itself before it divides. It provides the basic instructions for building every protein in the body.
How are the bases bonded in DNA?
A always bonds to t and G bonds to C. A&T are complimentary bases as are C&G
What is RNA?
single strands of nucleotides with bases of AGC and U with its sugar being ribose.
What are the 3 major varieties of RNA?
messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, adn transfer RNA. They are distinguished by their relative size and shape and each has a specific role.
What is ATP?
an adenine containing RNA nucleotide to which two phosphate groups have been attached during the breakdown of food fuels.
Name 3 examples of how ATP drives cellular work
1. drives transport of certain solutes across cell membranes
2. activates contractile proteins in muscle cells so that cells can shorten and perform mechanical work
3. provides the energy to drive endergonic chemical reactions.