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31 Cards in this Set

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Antibody
substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates a specific substance (antigen) that has entered the body
Antigen
substance, usually a protein fragment, that causes an immune response
Basophil
white blood cell that stains readily with basic (alkaline) dyes
Eosinophil
white blood cell, readily stained by eosin (a pinkish acid dye)
Neutrophil
white blood cell that stains readily with neutral dyes
Diapedesis
passage of any formed elements within blood through the vessel wall, as in movement of white cells into an area of injury and infection
Erythrocyte
Red blood cell
Erythropoiesis
process of red blood cell formation
Formed Elements
red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in blood
Hemoglobin
iron-containing protein in red blood cells responsible for their oxygen-carrying capacity
Leukocyte
White blood cell
Monocyte
large white blood cell; an agranular leukocyte
Plasma
liquid part of the blood
Platelet
specialized cell fragments in the blood; thrombocyte; important component in the clotting mechanism
Red Blood Cell (RBC)
The mature erythrocyte is also unique in that it does not contain ribosomes, mitochondria, and other organelles typical of most body cells. Instead, the primary component of each RBC is the red pigment, hemoglobin
White Bood Cell (WBC)
There are five types of white blood cells, or leukocytes, classified according to the presence or absence of granules and the staining characteristics of their cytoplasm
Name the fluid portion of whole blood.
Plasma
Identify what constitutes the formed elements of blood?
Red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
What factors influence blood volume?
Gender, age, body composition, and method of measurement
Identify the component percentages of the normal hematocrit
Plasma 55%, packed cell volume (hematocrit) 45%.
Name the red pigment found in RBCs, and list the normal range (in grams per 100 ml of blood) for women and men
Hemoglobin. Men: 5,500,000 per cubic millimeter. Women: 4,800,000 per cubic millimeter
Trace the formation of an erythrocyte from stem cell precursor to a mature and circulating RBC.
Erythrocytes begin their maturation sequence in the red bone marrow from nucleated cells known as hematopoietic stem cells. In red blood cells, differentiation begins with the appearance of proerythroblasts. Mitotic divisions then produce basophilic erythroblasts. The next maturation division produces polychromatic erythroblasts, which produce hemoglobin. These cells subsequently lose their nuclei and become reticulocytes. Once released in the circulating blood, reticulocytes become mature erythrocytes in about 24 to 36 hours
Explain the negative feedback loop that controls erythropoiesis.
The rate of RBC production soon speeds up if blood oxygen levels reaching the tissues decrease. Oxygen deficiency increases RBC numbers by increasing the secretion of a glycoprotein hormone called erythropoietin. If oxygen levels decrease, the kidneys release increasing amounts of erythropoietin, which in turns stimulates bone marrow to accelerate its production of RBCs. With increasing numbers of RBCs, oxygen delivery to tissue increases, less erythropoietin is produced and is available to stimulate RBC production in the red bone marrow
Discuss the destruction of RBCs
As RBCs age and fragment the macrophages in the liver and spleen ingest and destroy the old cells. The process results in the breakdown of hemoglobin with the release of amino acids, iron, and the pigment bilirubin. Iron is returned to the bone marrow, bilirubin is transported to the liver, and amino acids are released from the globin and used by the body for energy or for synthesis of new proteins
List the granulocytic and agranulocytic leukocytes
Granulocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. Agranulocytes: lymphocytes and monocytes
List the normal percentages of the different WBCs in a differential count
Neutrophils: 65-75. Eosinophils: 2-5. Basophils: .5-1. Lymphocytes: 20-25: Monocytes: 3-8
List the four ABO blood groups, and identify the antigens and antibodies (if any) associated with each
Type A: A antigen, anti-B antibody. Type B: B antigen, anti-A antibody. Type AB: A and B antigens, no antibodies. Type O: no antigens, anti-A and anti-B antibodies
Identify the two basic coagulation steps.
Extrinsic pathway and intrinsic pathway.
What is anemia
characterized by a reduced hematocrit value
There are 5 types of WBC or leukocytes
Netrophils, Eosinopils, Basophils, and these are determined by that they are have large granules in their cytoplasm
There are 5 types of WBC or leukocytes
Lymphocytes and monocytes, and these are agranulocytes (w/o cytoplasmic granules)