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88 Cards in this Set

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water is the most important and most abundant _____ in all living systems

inorganic compound

_____ to _____ percent of body mass is water

55


60

properties of water

water is an excellent solvent




water participates in chemical reactions




water absorbs and releases heat very slowly




water requires a large amount of heat to change from a liquid to a gas




water serves as a lubricant

solvent

a liquid or gas in which some other material, a solute, has been dissolved

solute

a substance or material that has been dissolved in a solvent

water is the solvent that carries _____, _____, and ____ throughout the body

nutrients, oxygen, wastes

water if often referred to as the _____

universal solvent

hydrophilic

polar substances dissolve easily in water

common example of hydrophilic solutes are _____ and _____

sugar


salt

solution

the combination of solvent plus solute

hydrophobic

molecules that contain mainly non-polar covalent bonds are not very water soluble

examples of hydrophobic compounds include _____ and _____

animal fats


vegetable oils

water actively participates in some _____ and _____ reactions

decomposition


synthesis

hydrolysis

to loosen or break apart

_____ reactions during digestion break down large nutrient molecules into smaller molecules through the addition of water molecules

decomposition

in a _____ reaction, dehydration synthesis, a water molecule is removed from the reactant

synthesis

water can _____ or _____ a relatively large amount of heat with only a slight change in its own temperature

absorb


release

____ helps maintain the homeostasis of body temperature

water

the _____ in sweat evaporates from the skin, it takes with it large quantities of heat and with it provides and excellent cooling mechanism

water

water is a major part of _____, _____, and other lubricating fluids

saliva


mucus

inorganic compound

a substance that does not contain carbon

inorganic compounds can be classified as _____, _____, or _____

acids


bases


salts

acid

a substance that breaks apart of dissociates into one or more hydrogen ions when it dissolves in water

base

usually dissociates into one or more hydroxide ions when it dissolves in water

salt

when dissolved in water, dissociates into cations and anions

cation

a positively charged ion that is attracted to a negatively charged electrode called a cathode

anion

a negatively charged ion that is attracted to a positively charged electrode called an anode

acids and bases react with one another to form _____

salts

to ensure homeostasis, body fluids must maintain almost balance quantities of _____ and _____

acids


bases

the chemical reactions that take place in the body are very sensitive to even small changes in the _____ or _____ of body fluids

acidity


alkalinity

the pH scale is based on the concentration of _____ in a solution

hydrogen ions

the pH of fluids inside and outside cells remains almost constant due to _____

buffers

buffers

are chemical compounds that act quickly to temporarily bind H+, removing the highly reactive, excess H+ from a solution

buffer prevent rapid and drastic changes in the _____ of a body fluid by converting strong acids and strong bases into weak acids and weak bases

pH

_____ acids release H+ more readily than weak acids

strong

_____ bases raise pH more than weak ones

strong

dehydration

is the loss of fluid that amounts to 1% of body weight

organic compound

a compound that contains carbon

_____ are organic compounds

carbohydrates

carbohydrates include:

sugars, starches, and cellolose

carbohydrates contain _____, _____, and _____ in a ration 1:2:2

carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

monosaccharides

or simple sugars are the building blocks of carbohydrates

monosaccharides include:

glucose, galactose, fructose, ribose, and deoxyribose

in your body, _____ is the main source of chemical energy

glucose

chemical energy is captured in a molecule called ___ that fuels metabolic reactions

ATP

two monosaccharide sugars, _____ and _____, make up ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribose acid (DNA)

ribose and deoxyribose

disaccharides

or double sugars, consist of two monosaccharides joined by a covalent bond

when two monosaccharides combine to form a disaccharide, a molecule of water is formed and removed in a reaction called _____

dehydration synthesis

dissaccharides can be split into monosaccharides by adding a molecule of water in a reaction called _____

hydrolysis reaction

disaccharides include:

maltose or malt sugar


lactose or milk sugar

polysaccharides

are large, complex carbohydrates that contain tens or hundreds of monoaccharides joined through dehydration synthesis reactions

polysaccharides can be broken down into monosaccharides through _____

hydrolysis reactions

the main polysaccharide in the human body is _____

glycogen

_____ are polysaccharides of glucose that are found mostly in plants such as corn, wheat, potatoes, and barley

starches

_____ is a polysaccharide found in plant cell walls

cellulose

polysaccharides usually are not soluble in ____ and do not taste sweet

water

an organic compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that is usually insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol, and chloroform

lipid

most lipids are ____ but they are fat soluble

hydrophobic

the lipids include:

triglycerides, fatty acids, phospholipids, steroids, fat-soluble vitamins

consists of two types of building blocks, a single glycerol molecule that forms the backbone and three fatty acid molecules, one attached to each carbon of glycerol by dehydration reactions

triglyceride

the fatty of a triglyceride may be _____ (only single covalent bonds), _____ (one double covalent bond), or _____ (more than one double covalent bond)

saturated

monounsaturated


polyunsaturated

have a glycerol backbone and two fatty acids attached to the first two carbons
phospholipids

steroids include:

hormones (estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and cortisol

large molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur

protein

Proteins are classified :

fibrous proteins (structural proteins)




globular proteins(mobile, spherical proteins with many functions)

an amino group at one end and a carboxyl group (─COOH) at the other end

amino acid

one amino acid links to the carboxyl group of another by a dehydration synthesis reaction to form a covalent bond
peptide bond
Amino acids combine to form _____ and _____

peptides


proteins

_____ polypeptides that contain 50 to 2,000 amino acids

Proteins
The sequence of amino acids in a protein
primary structure of the protein
A given type of _____ has a unique three-dimensional shape because of the ways that each polypeptide twists and folds as associated polypeptides come together
protein
bonds between sulfur-containing groups of nearby amino acids, also contribute to secondary and tertiary structures
disulfide bonds
The _____ and _____of amino acids in a protein is critical to its function
sequence

shape

Changes in temperature, radiation, pH, and ion concentrations can break the hydrogen and disulfide bonds within a protein
denaturation
a class of proteins called _____ that speed up chemical reactions by bringing together and properly orienting the reacting molecules, called _____, to form or break chemical bonds
enzymes

substrates

Enzymes have three important properties:
Specificity

Efficiency


Control

Each enzyme catalyzes a particular chemical reaction with a _____ reactant.
specific
Enzymes _____ reactions at high rates, millions to billions of times faster than the reaction would occur alone
catalyze
During an enzymatic reaction substrates bind to the surface of the enzyme at particular sites
active sites
Once bound, the compound is called _____
enzyme-substrate complex.
speed up chemical reactions by bringing together and properly orienting the reacting molecules to form or break chemical bonds without being consumed in the process.

enzymes

huge organic molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus

nucleic acids

A nucleic acid molecule is composed of repeating building blocks
nucleotides
nucleotide consists of three parts:
One of four different nitrogenous bases,


A five-carbon monosaccharide—deoxyribose or ribose




A phosphate group

ring-shaped molecules that contain C, H, O, and N
nitrogenous bases

two kinds of nucleic acids:

deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

ribonucleic acid (RNA)




_____ is the cell's genetic material which contains all the information necessary to make another cell or organism

DNA

___ made of of two strands twisted in a spiral staircase-like structure called a double helix

DNA