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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Difference between Lymph and Interstitial Fluid
Difference is location Interstitial Fluid is found between cells and lymph is located within lymphatic tissue and vessels
Two types of cells that participate in immune response
B cells & T cells
T cell & B cell Production and proliferation
Both produced in Red bone marrow but only B cells mature there while immature T cells migrate to cortex of thymus and mature there
Dendritic Cells
Cells found in the Cortex of Thymus that aids in the maturation of T cells
Large groups of Lymph nodes are present where? (3)
Axillae, Groin, Mammary glands
Extentions of Lymph Node capsule that divide it into compartments, support, and provides a route for blood vessels into node
Spread of disease from one part of body to another
Composition of Spleen
Capsule of dense connective tissue covered by peritoneum with trabeculae extending inward all constitute STROMA

Parenchyma is made of white pulp which is lympatic tissue made of lymphocytes and macrophages arranged around a central artery, Red pulp consists of RBCs, macrophages lymphocytes, plasma cells, granulocytes
Blood infection due to loss of filtering and phagocytic functions of spleen
Lymphatic Nodules
Egg shaped masses of lymphatic tissue not surrounded by a capsule
Peyer's Patches
Large aggregations of lymphatic nodules found in ileum of SI
Aggregations of Lymphatic Nodules (3)
Peyer's patches
Five tonsils
Pharyngeal tonsil or Adenoid is posterior nasopharynx

2 Palatine tonsils in posterior region of oral cavity (Commonly removed in tonsillectomy)

2 Linguinal tonsils at the base of tongue
Polypeptides fromed in blood from kininogens that induce vasodilation and increased permeability
Two immediate changes that occur in blood vessels as a result of injury

Increased permeability of capillaries
Process in which phagocytes stick to endothelium and squeeze through blood vessel walls as a result of chemotaxis
Increase of WBC in the blood
Collections of dead cells and fluid as a result of dead phagocytes and damaged tissue
Excessive accumulation of pus in a confined space i.e pimples and boils
Open sore formed when superficial inflamed tissue sloughs off due to poor circulation
Three stages of Inflammation
1) Vasodilation & Increased capillary permeability

2) Emigration of phagocytes

3) Tissue Repair
Substances that are recognized as foreign and provoke immune responses
Two properties that distinguish immunity from Nonspecific defenses
1) Specificity for particular antigens

2) Memory for most previously encountered antigens so next encounter will yield greater response
Cell-Mediated Immune Response
T cells proliferate to cytotoxic T cells and directly attacks invading antigen

Effective for pathogens inside of cell
Antibody-mediated immune response
B cells transform into plasma cells that synthesize Antibodies /Immunoglobins

Effective for pathogens in body fluids and extracellular pathogens
Numerous Antigenic Determinants found on Antigens each triggers an immune response
2 Types of T cells and their functions
CD 8 T cell proliferates into cytotoxic T cells

CD 4 T cells are T helper cells that aid in the proliferation of CD8 T cells into cytotoxic T cells and B cells into plasma cells
Difference between Epitope and Hapten
Epitope is an small immunogenic molecule attached to a larger antigen

Hapten is a small molecule that becomes immunogenic only after it attaches to a body protein
Major Histocompatibility Complexes (MHC)
Self antigens that mark the surface of each body cell except RBCs and help T cells distinguish between forein and self antigens
Difference between MHC I and MHC II
MHC I are built into plasma membranes of all body cells except RBCs

MHC II appear on surface of Antigen-Presenting Cells
Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs) (3)
Dendritic Cells, Macrophages and B cells
Steps in processing and presenting of an exogenous antigen
1) Ingestion of Antigen
2) Digestion of Antigen into peptide fragments
3) Synthesis of MHC-II during digestion
4) Fusion of MHC-II vesicle and Antigen Vesicle
5) Exocytosis of fused vesicle and insertion of Antigen-MHCII complexes into plasma Memb
6) Migration of APC into lymphatic tissue to present antigen to T cells
Processing of Endogenous Antigens
Process in which infected cells present Antigen-MHCI complexes after being infected and synthesizing endogenous antigens to red flag itself for killing
Small protein hormones that stimulate or inhibit normal cell functions such as cell growth and differentiation. Also works in costimulation & activation of T cells and B cells
Effector Cells
Clones of activated T cells that recognize same antigen and attacks it
First signal in activation of T cell
Antigen Recognition by a T-cell Receptor (TCR) with CD4 or CD8 proteins
A T cell becomes activated only if it binds to the foreign antigen and at same time receives a second signal
Helper T cells
Has CD4 proteins for costimulation when binding to Antigen-MHCII complexes and proliferates to clones which release cytokines and memory T helper cells
Cytotoxic T Cells
CD8 Cells that recognize Antigen-MHCI complexes and becomes activated through costimulation by IL-2 and Cytokines produced by T Helper Cells
Memory T Cells
T cells that remain from a proliferated T cell and chills until the same foreign antigen comes again
Protein found in NK cells and Cytotoxic T cells that poke holes in bacteria to cause cytolysis
Two Cytotoxic T cell Mechanisms
Granzymes released to digest proteins triggering apoptosis followed by phagocytes digesting the spilled microbes

Perforin released to puncture holes in Infected cell, Granulysin punches holds in microbe cell wall to cause them to lyse
Plasma Cells
Cells differentiated from B cells that produce Antibodies
Hinge Region
Part of antibody that allows bending of the arms to form T or Y shapes
Stem Region
Part of antibody where two heavy chains form
Two regions on antibodies
2 Variable regions where specific antigen binds that differ between epitopes

1 Constant region that is same in all antibodies of same class
Complement Proteins
Proteins made in the liver in an inactive form because they are dangerous. When first gets activated, triggers cascade of events that causes cytolysis