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28 Cards in this Set

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List and give examples of the types of bones.
long (femur), short (metacarpals); flat (cranial); irregular (vertebrae); wormain (skull); sesmoid (patella)
How many bones are found in the mature human body?.
approx. 206
How many bones are found in the infant human body?
approx. 270
Explain the two divisions of the skeleton.
axial - (80): skull (cranium; face); hyoid; auditory ossicles; vertebral column; thorax (ribs; sternum); appendicular - (126): pectoral girdle (clavicle; scapula); upper limbs (humerus; radius; ulna; carpals; metacarpals and phalanges); pelvic girdle (os coxae); lower limbs (femur; tibia; fibula; tarsals; metatarsals and phalanges)
Describe the skull of a newborn.
consists of fibrous connective tissue areas that have not yet ossified
Define fontanel.
soft spots that enable the fetal skull to modify it size and shape during a vaginal delivery; and to adjust to the increase in the size of the brain. The anterior fontanel is the largest and finishes ossifying at 2 years of age.
What is a sinus?
an opening within a bone that is lined with mucous membrane; these empty areas will decrease the weight of the skull and act as a resonating chamber for the voice
What is a parinasal sinus?
the bones around the nasal cavity have large sinuses within them;
Where are the sinuses found?
frontal; maxillary; ethmoidal and sphenoidal bones
Define nasal septum.
anatomical wall in the nasal cavity composed of the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone; the vomer and the anterior septal cartilage
Define deviated septum?
when the usually midsagittially place septum is displaced to one side; can cause difficulty breathing.
Define cleft palate.
an opening between the oral and nasal cavity because the palatine processes of the maxillary didn’t fuse properly in the womb. Usually has cleft lip
Define hyoid bone.
U shaped bone; unique because it does not articulate with other bones. It is found between the mandible and the larynx and provides attachment for muscles of the tongue
Describe the composition of the vertebral column.
composed of 26 bones; distributed in 5 regions: 7 cervical vertebrae; 12 thoracic; 5 lumbar; the sacrum (5 fused vertebrae) and coccyx (4 fused vertebrae).
Define intervertebral disks.
pads of fibrocartilage between the bodies of adjacent vertebrae used as shock absorbers to the spine.
Define herniated disk.
a rupture of a portion of the disk so that it is dislocated and leans on spinal nerves; very painful
List and describe the four normal curvature of the spine.
KYPHOTIC: thoracic & sacral (concave; primary - retain original embryonic curvature); LORDOTIC: cervical & lumbar (convex; secondary - form after birth, cervical-holding head up; lumbar-sitting up)
List the three abnormal curvatures of the spine.
scoliosis; kyphosis; lordosis
Define scoliosis.
lateral bend of the vertebral column; usually in the thoracic region
Define kyphosis.
exaggeration of the thoracic curvature. Also known as hunchback
Define lordosis.
exaggeration of lumbar curvature. Seen in pregnancy and also known as swayback
What are the two girdles of the body?
pectoral and pelvic
What does the pectoral girdle consist of?
consists of the clavicle and the scapula; joined at the acromioclavicular joint; most superior girdle that supports the arms
What does the pelvic girdle consist of?
formed by the anterior pubic symphysis; joining the two os coxae
How is the pubic symphysis held together?
by fibrocartilage
What classifies as a fused bone?
sacrum (5 vertebrae); coccyx (4 vertebrae)
What is the weight bearing portion of the vertebrae?
the body (centrum); the rounded, central, anterior facing, portion of a vertebrae
How many ribs are in the body?
12; 7 true, 5 false, ribs# 11-12 floating