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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
4 Types of Tissue
Main function of epithelial tissue?
Covers surfaces.
Glands are classified as which type of tissue?
Name the functions of the epithelium.
Protection, absorption, filtration, excretion, secretion, sensory reception.
What makes epithelial tissue different from other types?
Cells fit closely together and use specialized junctions.

Membranes are polar (apical vs. basal surfaces).

Supported by connective tissue.


What two different things are the epithelia classified by?
Cell shape.

Arrangement/number of layers.
What are the two possible arrangements for epithelia?
Simple (one layer) and stratified (2 or more layers).
What are the different cell shapes of epithelia?


How are stratified epithelia named?
According to the cells at the apical surface of the membrane, not those resting on the basement membrane.
What are the two more atypical types of epithelia?
Pseudostratified (actually simple columnar) and transitional (stratified squamous).
What are the two types of glands?
Endocrine or "ductless" glands (produce hormones)

Exocrine glands (sweat, oil, liver, pancreas)
What do simple squamous cells look like in cross section?
* Appears as a thin layer of flattened cells
* Cytoplasm looks like a thin line
* Nucleus also appears flattened
* When viewed from the surface, can be shaped like a fried egg
What do simple cuboidal cells look like in cross section?
* Cells appear square or slightly rounded
* Nuclei are usually round
What do simple columnar cells look like in cross section?
* Cells are taller than they are wide
* Nuclei are oval
Main function of connective tissue?
Protect, support and bind together other tissues of the body.
What is scar tissue made of?
Connective tissue.
What is areolar connective tissue?
Soft packaging material that cushion and protects body organs.
What is adipose connective tissue?
Provides insulation for the body tissues and a source of stored food.
What is hematopoietic tissue?
Replenishes the body's supply of red blood cells.
Characteristics of connective tissue?
* Highly vascularized (except for cartilage, tendons, ligaments)
* Composed of many cell types
* Lots of noncellular/nonliving material between the cells of connective tissue
Which type of connective tissue has the most extracellular matrix? The least?
Bone & cartilage.

Adipose tissue.
What is the extracellular matrix made of?
Ground substance (interstitial fluid, cell adhesion proteins, proteoglycans)

Fibers (collagen, elastic, reticular)
All other connective tissues are variations of which type of connective tissue?
What are the 4 main type of adult connective tissue?

Where do they all derive from?
* Connective tissue proper (areolar, adipose, reticular, dense/fibrous)
* Cartilage
* Bone
* Blood

All derive from the embryonic tissue mesenchyme.
Define lacunae.
A cavity in the very firm extracellular matrises (bone, cartilage) where connective tissue cells reside.
Characteristics of adiopose connective tissue in cross section.
* Large cells
* Nucleus is not always visible
Characteristics of areolar connective tissue in cross section.
* Macrophages
* Mast cells
* Dark wavy elastic fibers
* Lighter staining collagen fibers
* Smooth muscle stains darker than areolar tissue
Characteristics of reticular connective tissue in cross section.
* Fibers form a fine branching network
* Lightly colored circles are the nuclei of cells
* Many cells held close together in the network
Characteristics of dense regular connective tissue in cross section.
* Parallel, tightly packed collagen fibers
* Thin, dark, flattened nuclei of fibroblasts
Characteristics of dense irregular connective tissue in cross section.
* Many thick, pink-staining collagen fibers
* Fibroblasts are the predominant cell type, sparsely distributed among the collagen.
* Fibroblasts are flattened, dark staining nuclei.
Define chondrocyte.
Mature cell of cartilage tissue.
Characteristics of hyaline cartilage in cross section.
* Rounded chondrocytes in lacunae
* Homogenous extracellular matrix
Characteristics of elastic cartilage in cross section.
* Large round chondrocytes in lacunae
* Matrix has a lot of dark-stained elastic fibers
Characteristics of fibrocartilage in cross section.
* Large round chondrocytes in lacunae
* Matrix has densely packed collagen fibers
Characteristics of osseous connective tissue (bone) in cross section.
* Looks like cross section of a tree with dark spots
Characteristics of blood in cross section.
* Red blood cells usually stain red or pink
* Occassional white blood cells and platelets
Characteristics of mesenchyme in cross section.
* Small dark specks (nuceli)
* Faint appearance of fibers
* Large amount of extracellular material and few cells.
* Unorganized appearance
What is the main function of muscle tissue?
What are the three types of muscle tissue?
Cardiac, skeletal, smooth
Which type of muscle is multinucleate?
Skeletal muscle
Which types of muscles are involuntary?
Cardiac & smooth
Name 5 characteristics of skeletal muscle cells.
* Long
* Cylindrical
* Multinucleate
* Nuclei at periphery of cell
* Striations
What enables the cardiac muscle to act as a unit?
The cells are branching and they interdigitate at junctions called intercalated discs.
What is smooth muscle also known as?
Visceral muscle
Where is smooth muscle found?
The walls of hollow organs (digestive & urinary tract, uterus, blood vessels)
What differentiates smooth muscle from dense fibrous connective tissue in cross section?
* Smooth muscle has many more nuclei
* Smooth muscle has a more solid, dark pink stain b/c the stain is revealing the cytoplasm of the muscle cells , rather than the extracellular collagen fibers in connective tissue.
What are the 2 types of nervous tissue cells?
Neurons and neuroglia