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21 Cards in this Set

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Describe granulocyte.
category of WBC characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm, 3 lobed. Types: Neutrophil,
Eosinophil, Basophil
Describe agranulocyte.
category of WBC characterized by the absence of granules in their cytoplasm, round. Types: Lymphocytes,
Monocytes
Describe Labile Cells.
cells divide throughout life and can undergo regeneration
Describe Stable Cells.
cells do not ordinarily divide after growth is complete but can regenerate if necessary.
Describe Permanent Cells.
cells cannot replicate. If killed, permanent tissue is repaired by replacement.
Define Tissue
a group of cells that usually have a common embryological origin and function together to carry out a specific function. There will be communication between these cells that allows them to function as a unit.
What are Neural Crest Cells?
group of cells that break away from the neuroectoderm during development which give rise to parts of the peripheral nerves, skin pigment, medulla of the adrenal gland, and many tissues of the face.
Describe epithelial tissue.
covers surfaces, lines inside of organs and body cavities and forms glands. Epithelial cells are found above a basement membrane
Describe connective tissue.
protects and supports body, binds organs together, provides immunity.
Describe Muscle tissue.
movement and generation of heat
Describe Nervous tissue.
initiate and transmits impulses (action potentials) that control and coordinate the functioning of the body
What are the general characteristics of Epithelial Tissue?
Apical surface (free) and a basal surface (connected to a basement membrane);
Arranged close together in the tissue
Arranged in sheets that are either single or layered to form the tissue
Many gap junctions occur
Avascular tissue (no blood vessels); cells rely on diffusion of O2 and nutrients from nearby vessels
Has a nerve supply
High rate of mitosis due to location causing wear and tear
Describe endocrine glands.
secretions (hormones) do not go through a duct; ex) pituitary, adrenal gland
Describe excorine glands.
glands in which the secretions that are produced flow onto through a tube-like passageway (duct) to get to the surface; ex) mucus, digestive glands
What are the characteristics of connective tissue?
cells are scattered, not located on surfaces; has a nerve supply (exception: cartilage); Highly vascularized (exceptions: cartilage and tendons); connective tissue is derived from embryonic tissue called mesenchyme
Define epithelial membrane
Epithelial Membrane - A membrane is a thin sheet of tissue that covers a structure or lines a cavity. Most membranes are composed from epithelium and connective tissue under it. The skin is the external membrane of the body. Types are: Serious, Mucous, Synovial.
Describe characteristics of Nervous tissue.
Neurons carry impulses from one place to another, offering coordination to the body. includes: nucleus, cellular organelles, dendrites, axons, axon branches
Neuroglia (glial) - more abundant than the neurons and don’t carry impulses
Describe characteristics of muscular tissue.
Skeletal Muscle - This tissue is under voluntary control, containing multinucleated cells that have striations in the cytoplasm.
Cardiac Muscle - This type of muscle is found only in the walls of the heart. It is involuntary and functions in the flow of blood through the heart chambers. It contains areas where the membranes of 2 cardiac cells overlap each other, called intercalated discs. These appear as dark perpendicular lines. Lying parallel to the discs are lighter lines called the striations. These cells are uninuclear – 1 nucleus per cell.
Smooth Muscle - This is involuntary muscle found in the walls of the viscera. The cells do not have any striations in the cytoplasm (hence the label “smooth”), are uninuclear and are spindle shape. They tend to exist in sheets.
What is inflammation?
response is to isolate injurious agents from the rest of the body and to attack and destroy the injurious agent.
What 5 symptoms does inflammation produce?
redness, heat, swelling, pain, and disturbance of function
Describe Primary healing vs. secondary healing.
Primary healing: healing by first intention takes place in an injury that has even and closely opposed edges, such as a cut or incision. With this type of injury if the edges are held in very close approximation, a minimum of granulation tissue is produced.
Secondary healing: healing by secondary intention, results when there is a gaping lesion and large tissue loss, leading to replacement by scar tissue. External wounds such as lacerations commonly heal by secondary intention.