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27 Cards in this Set

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nonpolar go directly through membrane, polar not as easily (channels)
simple diffusion
molecules to large, move by protein carrier, the carrier engulfs it and releases it to the other side
facilitated diffusion
molecules and H2O are pushed through mem by hydrostatic pressure
filtration
requires energy, moves molecules against conc. gradient
active transport
uses a membrane pump fueled by ATP
primary transport
ex: Na, K pump
How does the Na, K pump work?
pumps 3 Na's outside cell, uses ATP to pump it out, takes in 2 K ions inside cell
much higher concentration of Na outside and much higher concentraion of K inside, shape changes so it must go back so when it does it takes back 2 K and the shape returns
molecules hitch a ride with the molecule pumped across membrane, catches a ride with Na
secondary transport
requires energy, used for large and macromolecules
vesicular transport
when it spits it outside the cell it is
exocytosis(fust with membrane and rupture)...ex:hormone, neurotransmitters,mucus secretion,cell waste
when it infolds and pinches off inside cell
endocytosis
cell eating, pseudopods encircle particles and engulf forming a vesicle called phagosome, fuses with a lysosome and contents are digested
phagocytosis
cell drinking, method of absorbing nutrients
pinocytosis
region between plasma mem. and nucleus
cytoplasm
power plant make ATP, has 2 membranes folded back in forth
mitochondria
granuales of protein and the site of protein synthesis, they are attached ot ER and some float freely
ribosomes
interconnected tubes and parallel membranes
endoplasmic reticulum
covered in ribosomes, most abundant in secretory cells, has a job in protein synthesis
Rough ER
no role in protein synthesis, contains integral protein enzyme that catalyze
Smooth ER
bags of powerful digestive enzymes, abundant in phagocytes, breaks down non-useful tissue
lysosomes
oxidases use O2 to detoxify molecules, catalase degrades free radicals
peroxisomes
stacked and flattened membranes, traffic director, modifies,concentrates,and pacakages proteins
golgi apparatus
control center of cell
nucleus
what reads the mRNA in the cytoplasm
ribosomes
codon is
3 nucleotides
starting codon is
AUG
what brings the correct amino acid to the ribosome
tRNA
stopping codon is
UAA