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123 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the hypodermis?
Subcutanius layer by the adipose tissue
How does subcutaneous fat distribution differ between males and females?
Men have less subcutaneous fat than women
What cell type is the epidermous comprised of?
stratified squamous epithelium
What is the function of keratin?
It is a water repellant
What is a callus?
Especially toughened area of skin that has become thick and hard.
What are melanocytes?
Located in the stratum basale of the skins epidermis, these cells produce melanin
What is the function of melanin?
To protect from UV light

Also provides pigment
How does melanin get distributed from melanocytes?
Skin, hair
what is the function of a merkel disc
To sense touch
What is the composition of the dermis?
Papilary region and a deeper thicker reticular region
What are the five layers of the epidermis?

pneumonic :Come Lets Get Some Beers
superficial to deep:

Stratum corneum
Stratum lucidum (not present in thin skin, only thick, hairless skin of palms & soles)
Stratum granulosum
Stratum spinosum
Stratum germinativum (also called "stratum basale")
It is the deepest layer of the skin specifically the epidermis. the anatomical structure of it is composed of a single row of cuboidal of columnar keratinocytes.
what is a dermal papilae?
extensions of the dermis into the epidermis. Finger prints.
What is the predominant connective tissue fiber type in the dermis?
Dense irregular
what are the three pigments that make up normal skin pigmentation?
Carotene= Oranges
Melanin= Black
Hemoglobin= red
What is a freckle?
Concentrated melanin, or carotene
What types of glands are sweat glands?
Appocrine, eccrine, ceruminous
What type of gland produces wax?
Cerminous glands
What type of glad produces milk?
Mammary Glands
What do sebaceous glands produce?
Sebum, oil
What makes a straight hair straight and a curly hair curly?
Flat or round hair shaft
What is the arrector pili muscle for?
It pulls the hair shaft
What is allopecia?
Alopecia or hair loss is the loss of hair on the body.
How does alopecia differ from baldness?
Alopecia is related to a medical condition and is unintentional. Baldness can be intentional or possibly male pattern.
How does the skin protect from the environment?
Melanin and keratin act to filter uv rays and keep water in and out of the body.
How does the skin participate in body temperature regulation?
Sweat, evaporation, blood vessles dialate and constrict.
How does the skin tell us about our environment?
Is it light, dark? Wrinkly dry?
What role does the skin have in making vitamin d?
UV light is needed to give vitamin d, it is processed in the skin. Then is able to be put into our bones and blood. We cannot absorb calcium without vitamin D.
What is abasal cell carcinoma?
Most common form of sckin cancer. DOesn't spread. Occur on sun exposed parts of the body.
What is a squamous cell carcinoma?
Malignant tumor of squamous epithelium.
what is melanoma?
Causes the majority of skin cancer related death.Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes which are found predominantly in skin but also in the bowel and the eye
what are the abcd's of melanoma recognition?
Asymmetrical skin lesion.
Border of the lesion is irregular.
Color: melanomas usually have multiple colors.
Diameter: moles greater than 5 mm are more likely to be melanomas than smaller moles.
Evolution: The evolution (ie change) of a mole or lesion may be a hint that the lesion is becoming malignant --or-- Elevation: The mole is raised or elevated above the skin.
What are the 3 degrees of burns?
1st= redness, white plaque
2nd=clear fluid fills
3rd= epidermus is burned away
what is lanugo?
hair that grows on the body in an attempt to insulate the skin because of lack of fat.
What is a tissue?
A group of similar cells working together to perform a function.
What is histology?
The study of tissues
What is the function of an epithelial tissue?
Covers body's surface. Protects. Keeps water in and out.
What is polarity?
Polarity refers to the dipole-dipole intermolecular forces between the slightly positively-charged end of one molecule to the negative end of another or the same molecule.
What is the difference between basal, apical and lateral surfaces?
Basal= Bottom
Apical= Top
Lateral= Sides
What is the basal lamina?
Layer of extracellular matrix which the epithelium sits and wihch is secreted by the epithelial cells.
What is the purpose of microvilli?
To increase absorption, surface area
What is the purpose of cillia?
Movement of secretions
What is a basement membrane?
Structure that supports the overlying epithelial or endothelial cells.
What is avascular?
Blood flows around it, but not to it. Cartilage.
What is a high regeneration rate?
fast to reproduce itself.
What are the two classifications of glands?
endocrine and ductless
What are the structural classifications of multicellular exocrine glands?
Simple, Compound, Tubular, Acinar?
what is the merocrine gland?
Seccretes with exocytosis
What is the holocrine gland?
Cell ruptures to secrete
What is the apocrine gland
Part of cell breaks off to secrete
What is the function of connective tissue?
Bind, body framework, organ support, fat storage, disease prevention
What is extracellular matrix?
Ground substance cells are surrounded with
Do all connective tissues have an exracellular matrix?
No, just fluid (plasma), Bone (hydroxy), Cartilage (colligen)
What is ground substance?
Protien and polysaccarides
What are the major gibers making up fibrous connective tissue?
Fibroblast and macrophage
What are fibroblasts, chondroblasts, osteoblasts and hematopoietic stem cells?
fibroblasts- Make fibers
Chondroblasts- Forms chondrocytes commonly known as cartilage cells
Osteoblasts- cell responsible for bone formation
Hematopoietic stem cells- (HSCs) are stem cells that give rise to all the blood cell types
What is a mesenchyme?
embryonic tissue from which all connective tissues arrise
Where can cutaneous membranes be found?
Skin
Where can mucus membranes be found?
Goblets
Where can serous membranes be found?
Heart, lungs, sliding areas, like between two bones.
What is the function of nervous tissue?
Communication, neurons to support cells.
What is the function of muscle tissue?
Contraction
What is a muscle fiber?
Elongated muscle cell
Why are skeletal muscle fibers striated?
Contraction
What special structure can be found in cardiac muscle?
Intercalated disk
What muscle cell type is multinuclaic?
Skeletal
What muscle type is branched?
Cardiac
Why is smooth muscle tissue smooth in appearance?
Cells are flat, tightly packed.
Which tissue type has the best regenerative capacity?
Epithelium
Which tissue type has the highest cancer rate?
Epithelium
Where can stratified columnar cells be found?
Male ureter
What is a lacunae?
pockets which cells live in.
What is the smallest unit of life?
cell
what is the difference between intracellular fluid and extracellular fluid?
extracellular fluid called interstitial fliid is the nutritious soup that cells bathe in. Intracellular fluid is called cytosol and is located inside the cell.
what role does plasma membrane play in separating intracellular and extracellular fluid?
Plasma membrane provides a means of controlled exchange with the outside and inside enviroment. It is semipermiable, selectively permiable as well.
What is meant by fluid mosaic?
the protiens float in a mosiac pattern of this plasma membrane composed of a phospholipid bilayer.
How does the structure of the phospholipid make for a membrane bilayer?
Phospholipids line up with their tails facing each other causing the name for 2 layers... bilayer.
What are glypolipids for?
Glyco lipids are sugar and fat, they are specialized ways for cells to identify each other. tails are non polar.
What are integral protiens for?
Transport
What are peripheral protiens for?
Losely attached to the integral protiens. Peripheral proteins include a network of filiments that help support the membrane from its sytoplasmic side. Some are enzymes others are involved in mechanical functions such as changing cell shape during cell division and muscle cell contraction or linking cells toether.
What is a glycoaylix?
“sugar covering” is used to describe the fuzzy sticky carbohydrate rich area at the cell surface. Enriched by glycolipids and glycoproteins.
What is interstitial fluid?
fluid in the cell
What is semipermiable?
Some things may cross the membrane while others are not allowed to pass.
what is cytosol?
Fluid in the cell surrounding the organelles.
What are organelles?
Little organs inside of a cell
What is a cytoskeleton?
Maintains the shape of the cell and anchors and moves some organelles
What is a centrosome?
Centrosome contain a pair of centrioles which are rod shaped and distribute the chromosomes during cell division.
WHat is cillia?
Short hair like projections on a cell membrane that move substances alonge the cell surface.
what are flagella?
Long thread like projections that whip the cell into motion. Sperm
What is the function of the ribosome?
Protien synthesis.
ENdoplasmic reticulum
Transport path. Protien, lipiod and detox.
Smooth er
makes lipids steroids and detoxifies drugs.
Rough er
Has ribosomes attached that make protiens.
Golgi complex
Packaging and shipping protiens for export to the plasma membrane.
Lysosomes
Enzyme store. Autolysis of cells occurs after death.
Peroxisomes
Oxidize amino acids, fatty acids and toxic chemicals.
Mitochondria.
Powerhouse of the cell, produces atp.
Nucleus
COntrol center of cell.
Nucleolus
house of rna that makes ribosomes. Inside the nucleus.
active transport
use atp to go from low concentration to high.
Passive transport
osmosis and diffusion going from high to low concentrations. No atp needed
Simple diffusion
requires no assistance
facilitated diffusion
carried across
Hypotonic
Low concentration outside the cell.
Hypertonic
High concentration outside the cell that solution is hypertonic
Isotonic
concentration inside and outside the cell are equal.
Endocytosis
ingestion of cell products
exocytosis
excretion of cell products
pinocytosis
ingestion of liquids
Phagosytosis
ingestion of solids
membrane potential
Voltage across the membrane
What happends during G1, s, g2, and m phases.
During G1, cells grow rapidly and carry out their routine functions.
The S phase is the period of DNA synthesis.
In G2, materials needed for cell division are synthesized and growth continues.
M phase (cell division), mitosis and cytokinesis occur, producing two daughter cells. Important checkpoints at which mitosis may be prevented from occurring are found throughout interphase; two are shown on the diagram.
prophase
stage 1 of mitosis chromatin shortens to form chromosome, microtubules form mitotic spindles.
metaphase
nuclear membrane dissapears chromosomes allign in the center of the cell.
anaphase
centromere splits apart to separate the two chromatid par into 2 chromasomes.
Telophase
reverse of prophase. nuclear membran e forms areound chromaosomes and nuclei appear
cytokinesis
cell splitting
chromatin
is the complex of DNA and protein that makes up chromosomes
chromasomes
organized structures of dna and protiens found in cells
tRNA
Short molecules that transfer amino acids to the ribosomes
rRNA
Ribosomes assist in protien synthesis.
mRNA
nucleotide strands that carry messeges to the genetically active dna
Stem cell
cells that have not yet differntiated
Somatic cell
of the body. Non reproductive.