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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How are the brain and spinal cord protected?
bones, meninges, and cerebrospinal fluid
name the meninges:
dura mater, arachoniod mater, pia mater
dura mater-
OUTERMOST layer. It is vascular and is made of tough ct. This covers the brain and spinal cord and actually extends to the sacrum.
What is the space between the dura mater and the vertebral bones called? a and p
EPIDURAL SPACE; bl. vessels, loose ct, adipose tissue and provides a protective pad around the spinal cord
arachnoid mater-ap
this is the think web-like middle meninges. It is AVASCULAR and covers the brain and spinal cord
What is found between ara. mater and pia mater?
cerbrospinal fluid
pia mater-
This is the innermost layer. It is VERY THIN and is rich in blood vessles and nerves. It NOURISHES the underlying brain and spinal cord
What are ventricles?
inter-connected cavities within the cerebral hemispheres and brain stem. They are continuous with the central canal
What are ventricles filled with?
cerebrospinal fluid
What is the largest venticle?
lateral ventricle
How are the 3 and 4 ventricle connected?
cerebral aqueduct
What are CHOROID PLEXUSES and where are they found?
tiny reddish masses of capillaries, in the pia mater
How much CSF is secreted daily by humans?
500 ml
The _____ create a _____ that regulated the compostion of the crebrospinal fluid
ependymal; blood-CSF barrier
The anatomy of CSF:
It is slightly viscid and is clear. Has a higher concentration of sodium and lower concentrations of glucose and potassium than other body fluids.
The phisiology of CSF:
Nutritive, Protective (brain and spinal cord float in the fluid...shock absorber), helps maintain a stable ionic concetrationin the CNS, provides a pathway to the blodd for wastes, supplies info. to the hypoth. and brain stem
The spinal cord is continuous w the _____ and extends through the _____
brain; vertebral column
How many segments does the spinal cord have, what does each do?
31, give rise to a PAIR of spinal nerves
Where is there enlargements and why?
cervical and lumbar, bc there are more nerves that lead to arms and legs
What is the spinal cord made of?
core is gray matter surrounded by white matter
What are the functions of the spinal cord?
conducts nerve impulses to and from the brain, serves as center for spinal reflexes
What does the tracts to in spinal cord?
provide a two-way system of communication between the brain and effectors.
What carries sensory info. to the brain?
ascending tracts
What carries impulses to effectors?
descendin tracts
Where do they cross at?
as they enter the brain
What is a reflex arc and list parts
the simplest of nerve pathways; recptor, sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron, effector
ap of reflexes:
they are automatic subsonscious responses to changes inside and outside of the body; reflexes help maintain homeostases by controlling h. rate, breathing rate, digestion, and b. pressure
Reflexes carry out what actions?
swallowing, sneezing, coughing, and vomiting...
What are two distince ones and def.:
patellar reflex-knee; Withdrawal reflex-moing away from something preceived as painful
What is the larges and most complex of the nervous system?
What three major cavities does the brain arise from?
forbrain, midbrain, and hindbrain
anterior portion gives rise to the cerebrum and basal ganglia. The posterior portion gives rise to the deencephalons.
gives rise to the cerebellum, pons and medulla oblangata.
What forms the brain stem?
pons, medulla oblongata, midbrain
What is the largest part of the brain, How are the 2 hemi. connected?
cerebrum; corpus callosum
Hemi. are separted by what, the bumps are called what, grooves are called what
longitudinal fissure, gyri, sulci
What is found between the cerebrum and cerebellum
transverse fissure
Name the lobes of the brain:
frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, insula
What is the outermost part of the cerebrum? what is it made of, and what does it contain?
cerebral cortex, a thin layer of gray matter, 75% of the neuron cell bodies in the entire nervous system
Functions of the cerebrum:
(includes both lobes)
INTERPRETATION of sensory impulses, INITIATION of voluntary muscular movements, memory, reasoning, intelligence, personality, speech (Broca's area)
What part of the brain dominates 90% of pop.? what is it about?
left- language activities
what is the right brain?
storing and retrieving of info. when needed
What is memory needed for:
all higher brain functions...learning, reasoning, and asapting
What re the 3 types of memory and def.
short term-easily displaced, recent mem.-mem. that is lost from disuse, long term mem- repeadly used and etched in mem.
Basal Nuclei- ap
masses of gray matter found deep in the cerebral hemi. Relays motor impulses to the brain stem and spinal cord.
Brain Stem: ap
Connects the brain to the spinal cord. Consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblangata
Midbrain- ap
found between hypo. and pons on brain stem; has several masses of gray matter that act as reflx centers that maintain posture
What is found in the midbrain and what is the gray matter called inside it?
the crebral aqueduct and the corpa quadrigemina; red nucleus
What are the functions of the hypothalamus:
heart rate and bl. pressure; body temp.; warter and electrolyte balance; contro of hunger and body weight; control movements and secretions of stomach and intestines; produces sub. to stimulate pit. gland ro release harmones; sleep and wakefulness
Limbic System:
thes system controls emotional experience and expression and can modify the way a person acts
Medulla Oblangata:
where the ascending and descending tracts go through
What does it serve as:
cardiac center- heartbeat; vasomotor center-constiction and dialation of bl. vessels; repiratory center- controls rate and rhythm and depth of breathing
What is the center of muxcualr coordination that helps us maintain posture and equilbrium?
Types of sleep:
normal, parasoxical
restful, dreamless sleep that is accompanied by reduced blood pressuer and repiratory rate
some areas of the brain are still active. you have dreams irregualr heart beat and repiratory rates ant REM
What is the PNS made of:
all of the nerves outside the CNS
what are its two divisions:
somatic, and autonomic
somatic system-
cranial and spinal nerves that connect the CNS to the skin and skeletal muscles. oversees conscious activities
autonomic system-
this connects the CNS to visceral organs and glands. This dive. function independently and continuously without conscious effort
what are the 2 divi of the auto. system?
sympathetic, parasympathetic
associated with the "fight or flight". Prepares the body for energy expending, stressful or emergency activities
char. of sympathetic: (stress)
neck hair stands up, acute senses, heart beats faster and harder, shallow breathing, blood shoots to the skeletal
parasympathetic- (peace)
returns the body to a non-emergency state after sympathetic