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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the primary function of the astrocyte?
Connecting them to their nutrient supply, the blood capillaries.
What is the primary function of the microglia?
Phagocytize microorganisms or neuronal debris.

Very impt b/c immune system cells don't have access to the CNS.
What is the primary function of the ependymal cells?
They line the central cavities of the brain and spinal cord.
What is the primary function of the oligodendrocytes?
They line the thicker neurons in a covering called a myelin sheath.
What are the structural units of the nervous system?
Neurons (nerve cells)
What are the 3 special characteristics of nerve cells?
1. Longevity - can last a lifetime
2. Amitotic - lose their ability to divide
3. High metabolic rate
Where does electrical signaling take place on the neural body?
The plasma membrane
What standard organelle do neurons lack?
Centrioles. They play a key role in division by forming the mitotic spindle.
What are neurons in the CNS called?

In the PNS?

What are bundles of neuron processes called in the CNS?

In the PNS?

What are the 2 types of neuron processes?
Dendrites & axons.

Virtually all organelles present in the cell body also occur in the dendrites.

Dendrites help convey nerve impulses.
False. They convey incoming messages toward the cell body that are just short distance signals ("graded potentials")
How many telodendria or terminal branches are found at the end of a typical axon?
10,000 or more
What two organelles do axons lack that cell bodies and dendrites have?
Nissl bodies and a Golgi apparatus.

Dendrites are always unmyelinated?
What is the myelin sheath actually composed of?
It is the Schwann cell that is tightly coiled around it, like guaze around a finger.
What is the neurilemma?
The exposed part of the Schwann cell plasma membrane, as well as the nucleus & cytoplasm of the Schwann cell.
What are the 3 possible structural classifications of neurons?
What are the 3 possible functional classifications of neurons?
What is voltage?
The measure of potential energy generated by separated charge.
What does Ohm's law tell us?
The greater the voltage, the greater the current.
What are the 3 types of ion channels?
What is the resting membrane potential?
When the voltage across the membrane of a neuron is -70 mV. The inside is negatively charged relative to the outside.
Excitable cells are very permeable to _____ and only slightly permeable to ______.

At what point does potassium stop diffusing out of the cell?
Until the electrical potential is equal but opposite to the force from the concentration gradient.