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21 Cards in this Set

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Cell life cycle
the series of changes a cell goes through from the time it is formed until it divides
Cell division
it reproduces it's self
Interphase
the cell is very active and is resting only from division a more accurate name for Interphase would be metabolic phase
Mitosis
Division of the nucleus
Prophase
the chromatin threads begin tp coil and shorten so that visible bar like bodies called chromosomes appear
Metaphase
(short stage)the chromosomes cluster and become aligned at the metaphase plate(midway between the centriols) so that the a straight line of chromosomes is seen
Anaphase
the centrometers that held the chromatids together split. the chromatids slowly begin to move apart drawn towards opposite ends of the cell.
Telophase
Prophase in reverse the chromosomes at opposite ends of the cell uncoil to become threadlike chromatin,the spindle breaks down,a nuclear envelope developes around each chromatin mass and nucleoli appear in each of the daughter nuclei
Cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm begins during late anaphase and completes during telophase
Cleavage furrow
appears over the midline of the spindle and squeezes or pinches the original cytoplasmic mass into two parts
Binucleated or multinucleated
when the cytoplasm does not divide when the nuclei does. fairly common in the liver
Gene
a DNA segment that carries the information for building one protien or polypeptide chain
Enzymes
Biological catalysts that regulate chemical reactions in the cell, are functional protiens,every chemical reaction that goes on in the body requires an enzyme
Amino acids
the building blocks of protiens that are joined during protien synthesis, examples-pheylalnine,glycine
rRNA
Ribosomal RNA helps form the ribosomes where protiens are built
mRNA
long single nucleotide strands that resemble half of a DNA moleculeand carry the"message"containing instructions for protien synthesis
tRNA
small cloverleaf-shaped molecules
Triplet Code
each three based sequence specifying a particular amino acid on the DNA
Codons
corresponding(to triplet code) three base sequences on mRNA
Transcription
involves the transfer of information from DNA's base sequence into comlimentary base sequence of mRNA(only DNA and mRNA are involved in transcription
Translation
occurs in the cytoplasm,once mRNA attaches to the ribosome then tRNA transfers amino acids to the ribosome they are bonded together by enzymes