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83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
green algae that scientist believe plants came from
-nonvascular plants that absorb water by diffusion
nonvascular plants
lack lignin fortified tissue required to support tall plants on land
- vascular plants divided into angiosperms and gymnosperms
conifer of cone bearing
- have waxy cuticles and stomatal crypts
stomatal crypts
- location of stomates in gymonsperms
- reduces water loss
-flowering plants divided into monocots and dicots
- one cotyledon
-scattered vascular bundles
-parallel leaf venation
-floral parts in 3s
-have fibrous roots
-two cotyledons
- vascular bundles in a ring
-leaf venation is netlike
-floral parts in 4s or 5s
- have tap roots
cell walls
- walls in plants that support plant
- made o cellulose
roots and root hairs
- in plants
- absrob water and nutrients from the soil
- in plants
-protective jacket where gametes develop
-prevents drying out
- tough polymer that protects plants in a harsh environments
- is in walls of spores and pollen
- growing embryonic tissue in plants
-actively dividing cells.
apical meristem
- growing cells at the tip of the roots and in buds of shoots
- provides primary growth
primary growth
-elongation of the plants down into the soil and up into the air
zone of cell division
-are meristem cells that are actively dividing
zone of elongation
- where cells elongate and push the root cap downward deeper into the soil
zone of differentiation
-where cells undergo specialization whi later prodce different systems in the plant
- form of stored carbohydrates in plants
gametophyte generation
- generation in plants where all cells are haploid(n)
sporophyte generation
- generation in plants wherea all cells are diploid(2n)
- plant kingdoms are divided into divisions instead of phyla
- meristem that turns into the epidermis
ground meristem
- cells that specialize into the cortex
-cells that specialize to become the xylem and phloem
root cap
- protects the root tip
- secretes a substance that helps digest the earth as the root tip grows into the soil
-primary leaf sprout
-usually one or two
leaf venation
- how the veins are arranged in leave
lateral meristem
-grows in width ( secondary growth)
dermal tissue
-covers and protects plant
- carries water from the roots to the shoots
-long thin dermal cells
- thick and supported with lignin
vessel elements
-short wide dermal cells
- are thin
- carries sugar from the leaves to the rest of the plant
sieve plates
-plates in pholem that carry nutrients from one cell to the next
companion cell
- attached to seive plate
- helps sieve plate
ground tissue
- tissue that functions as support
parenchymal cells
-cells with primary walls that differentiate into new cells
collenchymal cells
- cells that have thick primary walls
sclerenchymal cells
- have primary and secondary walls fortified with lignin
- absorb nutrients and anchor the plant
- root covering
- part of root that consists of parenchymal cells
vascular cylinder that has xylem and phloem
-surrounsds the stele
casparian strip
- band that wraps around the endoderm made of suberin
- waxy material that is imperivious to water and dissovled minerals
- single large roots, make up dicots
fibrous root system
-hold plant in place, make up monocots
adventitious roots
- root that rise above ground
aerial roots
- roots that stick out of water to get air
prop roots
- roots that grow above ground from the base of the stem
vascular bundles
- contain xylem and phloem
secondary xylem that accumulates over the years
guard cells
- leaf cells that control stomates
palisade mesophyll
-tightly packed inner part of the leaf
spongy mesophyll
- loosely packed inner part of the leaf
vascular bundles
- located in the mesophyll and carry nutrients from the soil --> leaves
bundle sheath cells
- mesophyll cells that surround the veins
how do stomates open and close?
- guard cells absorb water and become turgid forcing the stomate open. When guard cells lose water and become flaccid the stomate closes
depletion of CO2 cause stomates to _____ ?
- to open
increase in K+ ions causes stomates to ______ ?
-to open
blue light receptor causes stomates to _____ ?
- to open
lack of water causes stomates to _____ ?
- to close
High temperature cause stomates to _____ ?
- to close
abscisic acid
signals stomates to close
patch clamping
- method that studies regulation of guard cells and K + channels
transpirational pull
-force that pulls fluid up the xylem
root pressure
- resutls from water flowing into the stele from the soil
transpirational pull-cohesion theory
- for each molecule of water that evaporates from a leaf by transpiration, another molecule of water is drawn in at the root to replace it-
closing stomates ____ transpiration.
- stops
apoplast and symplast
- continuous system of cytoplasm of cell interconnected by plasmodesmota
-transport from sugar production to storage ( sink)
vegetative propagation
- produces replica of the parent through grafting or cutting
- opening in ovule where sperm enters
two polar bodies
- one sperm fertilizes the egg and the becomes an endosperm
- triploid(3n) food for the fertilized embryo
double fertilzation
- when one pollen fertilzes an ovule and the other makes and endosperm
- part of embryo that becomes the lower stem
- part of embryo that becomes the upper stem
- embryonic root emerged first from the seed
alternation of generations
sexual life of plants where there are monoploid and diploid generations