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61 Cards in this Set

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What are the four main groups of land plants?
1. Bryophytes
2. Pteridophytes
3. Gymnosperms
4. Angiosperms
Bryophytes
A moss, liverwort, or hornwort; a nonvascular plant that inhabits the land but lacks many of the terrestrial adaptations of vascular plants.
Pteridophytes
Seedless plants with true roots with lignified vascular tissue. The group includes ferns, whisk ferns, and horsetails.
Gymnosperms
A vascular plant that bears naked seeds—seeds not enclosed in specialized chambers.
Angiosperms
A flowering plant, which forms seeds inside a protective chamber called an ovary.
vascular plants
A plant with vascular tissue. Vascular plants include all modern species except the mosses and their relatives.
Vascular Tissue
Plant tissue consisting of cells joined into tubes that transport water and nutrients throughout the plant body.
seed
An adaptation for terrestrial plants consisting of an embryo packaged along with a store of food within a resistant coat.
Similarities between terrestrials plants and Charophyceans
1. rosette cellulose-synthesizing complexes
2. peroxisomes
they also have similarities in sperm cells and phragmoplast formation in the synthesis of cell plate in mitosis
Charophyceans
The green algal group that shares two ultrastructural features with land plants. They are considered to be the closest relatives of land plants.
rosette cellulose-synthesizing complexes
Rose-shaped array of proteins that synthesize the cellulose microfibrils of the cell walls of charophyceans and land plants.
peroxisomes
A microbody containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen, producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide.
apical meristems
Embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots that supplies cells for the plant to grow in length.
placental transfer cells
facilitate the transfer of nutrients from parental tissues
-basis for referring to land plants as embryophytes
embryophytes
Another name for land plants, recognizing that land plants share the common derived trait of multicellular, dependent embryos.
Alternation of generations
-does not occur in charophyceans
-A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte; characteristic of plants.
gametophyte
The multicellular haploid form in organisms undergoing alternation of generations that mitotically produces haploid gametes that unite and grow into the sporophyte generation.
sporophyte
The multicellular diploid form in organisms undergoing alternation of generations that results from a union of gametes and that meiotically produces haploid spores that grow into the gametophyte generation.
spore
In the life cycle of a plant or alga undergoing alternation of generations, a meiotically produced haploid cell that divides mitotically, generating a multicellular individual, the gametophyte, without fusing with another cell.
sporopollenin
A secondary product, a polymer synthesized by a side branch of a major metabolic pathway of plants that is resistant to almost all kinds of environmental damage; especially important in the evolutionary move of plants onto land.
sporangia
(plural, sporangia) A capsule in fungi and plants in which meiosis occurs and haploid spores develop.
spore mother cells
The cells that undergo meiosis and generate haploid spores within a sporangium.
gametangia
(plural, gametangia) The reproductive organ of bryophytes, consisting of the male antheridium and female archegonium; a multichambered jacket of sterile cells in which gametes are formed.
antheridia
(plural, antheridia) In plants, the male gametangium, a moist chamber in which gametes develop.
archegonium
(plural, archegonia) In plants, the female gametangium, a moist chamber in which gametes develop.
cuticle
A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants.
stomata
A microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange.
xylem
The tube-shaped, nonliving portion of the vascular system in plants that carries water and minerals from the roots to the rest of the plant.
phloem
The portion of the vascular system in plants consisting of living cells arranged into elongated tubes that transport sugar and other organic nutrients throughout the plant.
secondary compounds
A chemical compound synthesized through the diversion of products of major metabolic pathways for use in defense by prey species.
evidence that land plants evolved from charophyceans
-homologous chloroplasts
-homologous cellulous walls
-peroxisomes
-phragmoplasts in cell plate formation
-homologous sperm
What might alternation of generations have originated from?
delayed meiosis
Deep Green
An international initiative focusing on the deepest phylogenetic branching within the plant kingdom to identify and name the major plant clades.
kingdom Steptrophyta
The name given to the group that includes the traditional plant kingdom and the green algae most closely related to plants, the charophyceans and a few related groups.
kingdom Viridiplantae
The broadest version of the plant kingdom that includes the members of the kingdom Streptophyta plus the chlorophytes (non-charophycean green algae).
kingdom Plantae
The traditional embryophyte definition of the plant kingdom.
Where do plants originate from?
Plants are monopyletic meaning that they have a common ancestor
What are the 3 phyla of bryophytes?
1. phylum Hepatophyta (liverworts)
2. phylum Anthocerophyta (hornworts)
3. phylum Bryophyta (mosses)
phylum Hepatophyta (liverworts)
The group of liverworts, small herbaceous (non-woody) plants.
phylum Anthocerophyta (hornworts)
The group of hornworts, small herbaceous (non-woody) plants.
phylum Bryophyta (mosses)
A formal group of mosses. Note that the term "bryophyte " refers instead to the informal group of mosses, liverworts, and hornworts, nonvascular plants that inhabit the land but lack many of the terrestrial adaptations of vascular plants.
protonema
A mass of green, branched, one-cell thick filaments produced by germinating moss spores.
gametophore
The mature gamete-producing structure of a gametophyte body of a moss.
rhizoids
Long tubular single cells or filaments of cells that anchor bryophytes to the ground. Rhizoids are not composed of tissues, they lack specialized conducting cells, and they do not play a primary role in water and mineral absorption.
foot
The portion of a moss sporophyte that gathers sugars, amino acids, water, and minerals from the parent gametophyte via transfer cells.
seta
The elongated stalk of a moss sporophyte.
capsule
A sticky layer that surrounds the cell walls of some bacteria, protecting the cell surface and sometimes helping to glue the cell to surfaces.
calyptra
covers immature capsule
perostome
The upper part of the moss capsule (sporangium) often specialized for gradual spore discharge.
peat
Extensive deposits of undecayed organic material formed primarily from the wetland moss Sphagnum.
branched sporophytes
vascular plants have these, they become independent of the gametophyte parent
seedless vascular plants
The collective name for the phyla Lycophyta (lycophytes) and Pteridophyta (ferns, whisk ferns, and horsetails).
protracheophyte polysporangiophytes
A group of Silurian moss-like ancestors that were like bryophytes in lacking lignified vascular tissue but were different in having independent, branched, sporophytes that were not dependent on gametophytes for their growth.
microphylls
The small leaves of lycophytes that have only a single, unbranched vein.
megaphylls
The larger leaves of modern vascular plants served by a highly-branched vascular system.
homosporous
Referring to plants in which a single type of spore develops into a bisexual gametophyte having both male and female sex organs.
heterosporous
Referring to plants in which the sporophyte produces two kinds of spores that develop into unisexual gametophytes, either female or male.
megaspores
A spore from a heterosporous plant that develops into a female gametophyte bearing archegonia.
microspores
A spore from a heterosporous plant that develops into a male gametophyte with antheridia.
sporophylls
Lycophyte leaves specialized for reproduction.
sori
Clusters of fern sporangia on the backs of green leaves or on special, non-green leaves (sporophylls). Sori may be arranged in various patterns, such as parallel lines or dots, that are useful in fern identification.