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75 Cards in this Set

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Microscopic spores through the surfaces of leaves which are used in the exchange of carbon dioxide and Oxygen with the environment.
A waxy coating in leaves of plants which helps prevent excessive water loss, a major problem on land.
Secondary Products
Products not produced by the primary metabolic pathways common to all plants. Like the waxes of cuticles which are only available on land plants.
The substance that hardens the cell walls of "woody" tissues in many plants.
A polymer that is resistant to almost all kinds of environmental damage.
Organs having protective jackets of sterile (nonreproductive) cells that prevent the delicate gametes from drying out during their development.
A name given to plants because they retain embryos which is a key different between them and algae which retain spores.
In the alternation of generation in plants, it is a multicellular individual with haploid cells.
In the alternation of generation in plants it is a multicellular individual with diploid cells.
Vascular Tissue
Tissues consisting of cells joined into tubes that transport waste and nutrients throughout the plant body.
Plants with naked seeds such as conifers which are the pines and other plants with cones.
They are flowering plants.
Used by plant biologist in place of a phylum to classify plants.
Green algae that evidence point to, to be the closest relatives of plants.
A way in which Fungi aquire nutrients by absorbing small organic molecules from the surrounding medium.
Minute threads composed of tubular walls surrounding plasma membrane and cytoplasm and are the units of yeasts.
An interwoven mat formed by the hyphae and it is the "feeding" network of fungus.
Divides the hyphae of multicellular fungi
The components of most fungi cell walls.
Coencytic Fungi
Fungi that are aseptate, meaning that their hyphae are not divided into cells by septa. They consist of a continuous cytoplasmic mass with hundreds or thousands of nuclei.
Modified hyphae of parasitic fungi and has nutrients absorbing hyphal tips that penetrate the tissues of the host.
The stages of syngamy (the sexual union of cells from two individuals). It is the fusion of the cytoplasm.
The fusion of nuclei.
The pairing up of the two nuclei from both parents without fusing. Dikaryon (two nuclei).
The linking group of organisms between fungi and protists and they are mostly aquatic.
Zygote Fungi
Also known as zygomycetes and are mostly terrestrial fungi and live in soil or on decaying plant and animal material.
Mutualistic association of plant root with fungi but mostly zygote fungi.
Sac Fungi
Also known as ascomycetes ranges in size and complexity from unicellular yeast to morels.
Saclike structures used by ascomycetes to produce sexual spores.
Macroscopic fruiting bodies used by ascomycetes to bear their sexual stages.
Naked spores which are often dispersed by wind and are not formed inside the sporangia
fungi such as shelf fungus, mushrooms and puffballs.
club Fungus
the name given to basidium because of their clublike shape.
Elaborating fruiting bodies produced by club fungus through sexual reproduction.
A rapidly growing asexually reproducing fungus.
imperfect Fungi
Also known as deuteromycetes are molds that have no known sexual stages.
Unicellular fungi that inhabit liquid or moist habitats, including plant sap and animal tissues.
A symbiotic association of millions of photosynthetic microorganisms held in a mesh of fungal hyphae.
Small clusters of hyphae with embedded algae
Eating other organisms or organic material that is decomposing.
A succession of mitotic cell division.
the hollow ball of cells marking the end stage of cleavage during early embryonic development.
A process that follows the blastula stage and it is when layers of embryonic tissues that will develop into adult body parts are produced.
The two-layered, cup-shaped embryonic stage following gastrulation.
A sexually immature form of life of some animals.
An animal phylum that has no true tissues like sponges.
An animal phylum consisting of all other animals except sponges and they have tissues.
Radial Symmetry
Characterizing a body shaped like a pie with many equal parts radiating outward like the spokes of a wheel.
Members of the branch of eumetazoans possesing radial symmetry.
Bilateral symmetry
characterizing a body form with a central longitudinal plane that divides the body into two equal but opposite sides.
Members of the branch of eumetazoans possesing bilateral symmetry.
An evolutionary trend towards the concentration of sensory equipment on the anterior end, the end of a traveling animal that is usually first to encounter food, danger and other stimuli.
Gem Layers
layers that form the various tissues and organs of the body as development progresses.
Covering of the surface of an embryo and gives rise to the outer covering of an animal.
The innermost germ layer and lines the developing digestive tube.
The endoderm lined cavity , formed during the gastrulation process, that develops into the digestive tracts of an animal.
the gem layer between the Ectoderm and Endoderm and gives rise to the muscles and all the organs between the digestive tracts and the outer covering of an animal.
Having two gem layers like the group radiata.
Having three gem layers like all other Eumetazoans except the group radiata.
A solid-bodied troploblastic animal lacking a cavity between the gut and outer body wall.
Body Cavity
A fluid lined space seperating the digestive tract from the outer body wall.
A body cavity completely lined with mesoderm
An animal whose body cavity is completely lined by mesoderm.
An animal whose body cavity is not completely lined by mesoderm.
A member of one of the two distinct evolutionary lines of coelomates, consisting of annelids, mollusks, and arthropods, and characterized by spiral determinate cleavage and development of the mouth from the blastospore.
A member of one of the two distinct evolutionary lines of coelomates, consisting of the echinoderms and chordates and characterized by radial indeterminate cleavage and development of the anus from the blastospore.
spiral Cleavage
A type of embryonic development in protosomes in which planes of cell division are diagonal to the vertical axis of the embryo.
Determinante cleavage
A type of embryonic development in protosomes that rigidly casts the developmental stage of each embryonic cell very early.
Radial cleavage
cleavage in which the cleavage planes are parallel or perpendicular to the vertical egg axis.
Indeterminate cleavage
Cleavage whereby each cell in the early embryo retains the capacity to develop into a complete embryo.
The opening of the archenteron.
Schizocoelous Development
A developmental pattern in a protostome, in which solid masses of mesoderm split to form the coelomic cavities.
Enterocoelous Development
A developmental pattern In deuterostomes, in which mesoderm buds off from the wall of the archenteron and hollows to become the coelomic cavities
Ediacaran Period
The last period of the precambian era.
Cambrian Explosion
A burst of animal origins dating from 545 to 525 million years ago.