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46 Cards in this Set

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primary structure
level of protein structure refering to the sequence of amino acids
glycolysis
splitting of glucose into 2 pyruvates. The start of fermentation (aerobic respiration)
base
a substance that reduce H+ concentration (and increase -OH)
cellular respiratoin
most efficient catabolic pathway of producing ATP
aqueous soolution
a solution in which water is the solvent
Krebs cycle
chemical cycle with 8 steps that completes the breakdown of glucose; occurs in the matrix of mitochondria; 2nd major step in celluar respiration
isotonic
solution of equal solute concentration
dehydrattion syntheses (condensation reaction)
bonding of 2 molecule iwht the loss of a water molecule
ribosome
the site of protein synthesis
hypertonic
solution with a lesser solute concentration
amphipathic
molecule with both a hydrophilic and hydrophobic region
transcription
the transfer of information from DNA into RNA molecule
bottleneck effect
genetic drift resulting from the reduction of a population, usually by natural disaster, such that the surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the orginial population
gene flow
loss of gain of alleles from a popluatoin due to emigratoin or immigration
primase
joins RNA nucleotides to make the primer
DNA polymerase
an enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of new DNA at a replication fork in the 5'to 3'directoin
anagensis
pattern of evolutionary change where the entire population transfor so much that it beomes a seperate specie.
solvent
the dissolving agent of a solution
pH scale
a measure of hydrogen ion concentration equal to -log[H+} and renging from 0 to 14
DNA ligase
linking enzyme that catalyzes the covalent bonding of the 3' end of a new DNA fragment
plasmodesmata
an open channel in the cell wall of plants that allow cytoplasm to flow between cells.
anticodon
specialized base triplet on one end of tRNA that recognizes complementary codon on mRNA
photosystem I
reacton-center in chloroplast; exicted by wavelength at 700nm; responsible in cyclic photophosphorolation
cladogenesis
pattern of evolationary change in which more then 1 new specie is produced
plasmolysis
the shrinking of a cell from loss of water
turgid
firm; walled cells become turgid as a result of the entry of water
deuterostome
echinoderms and chordates; the frist opening becomes the anus
microfilaments
solid rod of actin protein
light reaction
step in photosynthesis that occur on the thylakoid that convert solar energy to ATP and NADPH, oxygen is released
anion
negatively charged ion
cation
positively charged ion
cell fractionation
disruption of a cell and separation of its organelles by centrifugation
phylogeny
evolutionary history of a species or group of related species
speciation
origin of new species in evolution
punctuated equilibrium
theory of evolution advocating spurts of rapid change followed by long period of stasis
fermentation
catabolic process that makes limited amount of ATP (usually 2) End product are ethyl alcohol in plant, and lactic acid in muscle (animal cells)
dalton
nit of measure used for atom and subatomic particles
mass number
the sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
cystic fibrosis
a disease in which buildup of mucus in lungs and other organs that may lead to pnenomia
test cross
breeding of arganism with unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual
plasma membrane
membrane at the coundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier
active site
specific portion of an enzyme that attaches to the substrate by means of chemical bonds
eukaryotic cell
type of cell that contains a nucleus
Huntington's disease
degenerative disease of the nercous system caused by a lethal dominant allele that has no effect until 35 to 45 years old
mRNA
type of RNA synthesized from DNA in transcription
allopatric speciation
mode of speciatin where the ancestral population becomes segregated by a geographical barrier