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85 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
smallest unit of an element that still retains the property of the element
close together in nucleus of atom
Neutrons and Protons
move quickly in a cloud around nucleus of atom
number of protons an element possesses which is unique to that element
atomic number
number of protons and neutrons in an element
mass number
defined as interactions between the valence electrons of atoms
chemical bonds
atoms are held together by chemical bonds to form
occurs when valence electrons are shared by two atoms
covalent bond
occur when electrons being shared are shared equally between two atoms
Non-polar covalent bond
two atoms with different electronegativities resulting in unequal sharing of electrons
polar covalent bonds
two bonded atoms attract the shared electrons so unequally that the more electronegative atom steals the electron away from the less electronegative atom, compounds called salts
ionic bond
relatively weak bonds that form between molecules, as in water, positively charged hydrogen atom of one molecule is attracted to the negatively charged atom of another molecule.
hydrogen bonds
have different properties as a result of their different structures. More specifically their behavior is dependent on the identity of their functional groups.
organic molecules
-OH alcohols such as ethanol and methanol
hydroxyl group
-COOH some fatty acids and sugars
-COR or -COH ketones, and aldehydes such as sugars
-NH2 amines such as amino acids
amino groups
PO3- organic phosphates, including ATP, DNA, and phospholipids
phosphate group
-CH3 found in butane, hydrophobic
methyl group
structure of water
key to its special properties, water is made of one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms
V shaped
means that water is polar and tetrahedral, can form maximum of
the clinging of one substance to a water molecule
water exaporates from leaves of plants as a chain
long chain of water molecules moves up through cells by
capillary action
ability of molecules to attract to themselves
moderating is temperature
water is responsible for insulating the earth because of its very high specific heat
specific heat
the amount of heat required to raise or lower the temp of the substance by 1 degree C and the specific heat of water is 1 cal/g degree C. much heat required to heat it and much energy must be lost to cool it.
crystal lattice structure
water solid state is less dense than its liquid state because of H bond.
water is an important solvent.
when a solution has water as it solvent it is called aqueous. ionic compounds, polar molecules and some proteins are hydrophylic. oils however are hydrophobic.
H ion
when a H ion is transferred from one mol. to another it leaves its electron. The H ion is a proton with a charge of one.
hydroxide ion vs hydronium ion
the water mol that lost its proton is depicted as OH - vs. the mol that gains a proton is depicted as H30+
dissociation of a water mol.
it is even in pure water but if acids or bases are added to water, equil. shifts
most large organic macro molecules polymers are long chained molecules that are made up of repeated units that are either the same as or similar to each other
small units that make up polymers and distinguishes them
condensation or dehydration reaction
in this reaction, 2 monomers are combined and one water molecule is released.
the reverse reaction in which a polymer is broken down into 2 monomers after the addition of water.
4 basic kinds of macro-molecules
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
the simplest sugars - simple ring structures like glucose and fructose. both glucose and fructose have the same chemical formula C6H12O6, but the way their atoms are arranged gives each one a different molecular formula and chemical properties.
made of 2 monosaccharides that have undergone a condensation reaction. 3 ex are sucrose, maltose and lactose.
polymers of monosaccharides. polysaccharides are involved in the storage of carbs in organisms. In plants carbs are stored in the form of starch made of glucose monomers. In animals carbs are stored as glycogen. this is also a polysaccharide made of glucose, but its structure is more branched than the structure of starch.
a polysaccharide involved in the structure of organisms, it makes up the thick cell wall of plants. It is also a polymer of glucose.
in animals such as arthropods it is an important structural polysaccharide. made up of a variation of glucose with a nitrogenous arm.
4 kinds of lipids
waxes, oils, fats, and steroids
all hydrophobic
large molecules created by dehydration synthesis reaction between smaller molecules. fats are made up of a glycerol head molecule and 3 fatty acid molecules.
saturated fatty acids
contain no double bonds
unsaturated fatty acids
contain at least one double bond
adipose cells
where fat is stored in mammals.
a very important lipid making up cell membranes. They have a glycerol backbone and 2 fatty acid tails. glycerols are hydrophylic and fatty acids hydrophobic
made up of 4 rings that are fused together. one comon type of steroid is colesteral. It is an important component of cell membranes. Others are found in hormones such as estrogen and testosterone.
polymers made up of amino acid monomers. make up about 50 per cent of the cell.
amino acids
organic molecules that contain a carboxyl group and an amino group as well as an R group - a variable group, that gives each amino acid its identity and properties. there are 20, and most of them end in ine.
peptide bonds
join amino acids in a dehydration synthesis reaction.
primary structure
one of the 4 levels of protein structures. it is the sequence in which the amino acids are joined.
secondary structure
refers to 1 of 2 three D shapes that the protein can have due to H bonding. one shape is a coiled shaped called a alpha-helix; 2nd is an accordian shape called beta pleated sheet;
tertiary structure
refers to interactions between side chains of the protein. interactions involve hydrophobic reactions.
quaternary structure
association of 2 or more polypeptide chains into 1 giant macromolecule.
upon heating or ph change or other disturbance, a protein becomes inactive. Denaturization causes a proteinc to lose its shape or conformation.
nucleic acids
polymers of nucleotide monomers
made up of 3 parts - a nitrogenous base, 5 carbon sugar called pentose, and a phosphate group
purines and pyrimidines
purines - adenine, guanine
pyrimidines - cytosine, thymine and uracil. thymine is found only in DNA and uracil only in RNA. Adonine always appears with thymine, and cytocine with guanine.
deoxyribose vs ribose
DNA's pentose has one less Ox. than ribose.
phosphodiester bonds
nucleotides are joined by phosphodiester bonds. in DNA 2 polynucleotides chains wrap around each other in a helical shape, whereas RNA is a single nucleotide.
the capacity to do work
kinetic energy
energy in motion
potential energy
energy stored as a result of its position or structure.
chemical energy
a type of potential energy stored in molecules, dependent upon its chemical bonds.
the study of energy transformations that occur in matter
first law of thermodynamics
energy cannot be created or destroyed but it can be transferred and transformed
the amount of disorder, randomness and decay in the universe
free energy
defined as a part of a systems energy that is able to perform work when the temperature of a system is uniform.
formula for energy
g=free energy; h=symbol for total energy of a system. s=symbol for entropy; the relationship between the change of free energy, change in energy, change in entropy and temperature is as follows:
deltaG = delta H - T x delta S.
exergonic verses endergonic reaction
energy is released, change in G is negative vs. one that requires energy in order to proceed - change in G is positive.
spontaneous reaction
the system must either have a decrease in H or an increase in S
the primary source of energy for the cell. Adenosine triphosphate. Made of nitrogenous base adinine bonded to ribose and a chain of 3 phosphate groups. When a phosphate group is hydrolyzed, energy is released as in an exergonic reaction.
work in the cell is done by the release of a phosphate group in ATP. When ATP transfers one phosphate group through hydrolysis it becomes ADP
substances that can change the rate of reaction without being altered in the process themselves.
proteins that are biological catalysts.
activation energy
the amount of energy it takes to start a reaction. the amount of energy it takes to break the bonds in the reactive molecules. Enzymes speed up reaction by lowering activation energy but not changing the free energy change of the reaction.
the reactant that the enzyme acts on
active site
the part of the enzyme that binds to the substrate. the enzyme and substrate forms a complex called an enzyme substrate complex that is held together by weak interactions.
what the substrate has turned into.
competitive inhibitors
one of the substances that inhibits the actions of enzymes. They compete with the substrate for the active site on the enzyme.
noncompetitive inhibitors
bind to another site on the enzyme other than the active site causing the enzyme to change its shape.
allosteric site
many enzyme regulars bind to this specific receptor far from the active site and they can either stimulate or inhibit enzyme activity.