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43 Cards in this Set

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2 general types of plants
bryophytes and tracheophytes
bryophytes
-moist environments and absorb water by diffusion
-lack tissue to support tall plants
ex) mosses
tracheophytes
-xylem and phloem
-flowering and seedless plants like ferns
-divided into gymnosperms and angiosperms
gymnosperms
-conifers- cone bearing
-have modifications for dryness: waxy cuticle and stomal crypts
angiosperms
-flowering plants
-divided into monocots and dicots
differences between monocots and dicots (5)
1. monocots- 1 cotyledon
dicots- 2
2. monocots- vascular bundles scattered
dicots- arranged in a ring
3. monocots- parallel leaf veins
dicots- netlike
4. monocots- flowers in 3s
dicots- flowers in 4s or 5s
5. monocots- fibrous roots
dicots- taproots
What helps prevent water loss in plants- support plants living on land and not in water (8)
1. cell walls- shape
2. roots and root hairs for water absorption
3. stomatal crypts
4. cutin- waxy coat
5. gametangia
6. sporopollenin
7. c-4 and CAM plants
8. seeds and pollen-protective coat
meristems
embryonic tissues that continually divide and generate new cells- the pattern of growth depends on the location of the meristem
primary growth
the elongation of the plant down into the soil and up into the air
apical meristem
located at the tips of the roots and in the buds of shoots- provides primary grwoth
3 zones of primary growth
1. zone of cell division- apical meristem
2. zone of elongation
3. zone of differentiation
root cap
protects the root by descreting a substance that helps digest the earth as the root tip grows through the soil
zone of cell division
-meristem cells
-actively divide and are responsible for producing new cells that grow into the soil
zone of elongation
cells elongate and ppush root cap downward deeper into the soil
zone of differentiation
cells undergo specialization into 3 tissue systems of a plant
secondary growth
provided by lateral meristem
-increase in girth
-responsible for gradual thinkening of roots and shoots in woody plants
3 types of plant tissue
1. dermal tissue
2. vascular tissue
3. ground tissue
dermal tissue
-covers and protects the plant
-includes endodermis, epidermis, and modified cells like guard cells, root hairs, and cell that produce a waxy cuticle
vascular tissue
-xylem and phloem
-transport water and nutrients around the plant
xylem
water and mineral conducting tissue
-consist of tracheids and vessel elements
tracheids
long thin cells that overlap and are tapered at the ends
-water passes from one cell to another through pits, areas with no secondary wall
-supports cell
vessel elements
galigned end to end- ends are perforated to allow free flow through the vessel
which plants have which
-seedless vascularplants and most gymnosperms have only tracheids
-most angiosperms have both tracheids and vessel members
phloem
carry sugars from photosynthetic leaves to the rest of the plant by active transport
-sieve tubes and sieve plates- conduct fluid
ground tissue
-most common, functions mainly in support
3 types of ground tissue
1. parenchyma
2. schlerenchma
3. collenchyma
parenchymmal cells
-look like traditional plant cells
-ccontain plastids and store starch
-give support and shape to the plant
-can divide and differentiate esp. when a plant is injured
collenchymal cells
-thick primary cell walls
-support the growing stem
schlerenchymal cells
-thick primary and secondaary walls
-support the plant
2 types: fibers and sclereids
function of roots
to absorb nutrients from the soil, anchor teh plant, and store food
parts of the root
epidermis, root hairs, cortex, stele/vascular cylinder, endoderm/endodermis
epidermis
covers the surface of the root and is modified for absorption
-have root hairs to increase surface area for more absportion
cortex
consists of parenchymal cells that contain plastids to store starch and other organic materials
stele/vascular cylinder
consists of vascular tissues (xylem and phloem( surrounded by tissue called pericyle
endoderm
tightly packed layer of cells that surrounds the vascular cylinder
-selects what minerals enter the vascular cylinder and the body of the plant
taproot
single large root that gives rise to lateral branch roots
-primary root in dicots
fibrous root system
-common in monocots
-holds a plant firmly in place
adventitious roots
roots that rise above the round
aerial roots
stick up out of water and serve to aerate the root cells
prop roots
in tall plants- grow above ground and help support the plant
vascular bundles
strands where vascular tissue in stems are
-zylem faces outward, phloem faces inward, and meristem tissue in between
-SCATTERED in monocots, RING in dicots
ground tissue of the stem
consists of cortex and pith, parenchymal tissues for modified storage
apical meristem in stems
located at tips of shoots and roots, supply cells for the plant to grow in length