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37 Cards in this Set

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Basics of Plants
1) multicellular, eukaryotes
2) cell wall made of cellulose
3) photosynthetic
4) take up H20 via capillary action
Bryophytes
-primitive
-non vascular
-lack true stem/roots/leaves
(ex. moss/liverworts)
-sponge-like absorption of H20 through the surface
-need H20 for reproduction
-flagellated sperm must swim from the antheridium(male) to archegonium(female)
Tracheophytes:
VASCULAR TISSUE
(xylem)
1) xylem- conduct H20 and minerals up
-tracheids - long/thin
-vessel elements - short/think
Tracheophytes:
VASCULAR TISSUE
(phloem)
2. phloem- carry food (glucose) down
-sieve tube elements - carry the nutrients
-companion cells - give support to sieve tubes
Tracheophytes:
VASCULAR TISSUE
(roots)
3. roots
-absorb H20 and anchor plants
-root hairs increase surface area
Tracheophytes:
water movement
root hairs absorb H20 by diffusion and move through roots and up xylem via capillary action
Seedless Vascular Plants
ex. ferns, horsetails, club mosses
-need H20 for flagellated sperm to reach egg
Seeded Vascular plants
-less H20 required for reproduction
-fertilization occurs via air
- pollen replaces flagellated sperm
-ovule encases and protects egg
Seeded Vascular plants:
Gymnosperms
"naked seeds"
-only have tracheids in xylem
-ancient, woody plants, perennial

ex. conifers, pines, furs, redwoods

male cones are smaller on top of tree open and drop pollen onto large female cones below, fertilization occurs, seeds mature, cone opens to disperse seeds
Seeded Vascular plants:
Angiosperms
"flowering plants"
-have an enclosed seed located within a fruit or not
-mostly vessel elements in xylem
-includes flowers, grasses, trees, ect
Two adaptations of bryophytes when they moved on to land
-spores toughened by sporopollenin and jacketed gametangia
-no vascular tissue
adaptations of vascular plants
1) sporophyte is the dominant stage
2) branching of sporophytes increases number of sporangia and hence more spores
3) lignin, a hard material embedded in cellulose functions for mechanical support
homosporous
produces a single type of spore
heterosporous
two kinds of spores
1) megaspores develop into female gametophhyte bearing archegonia
2) microspores develop into male gametophyte bearing antheridia
Monocots
one cotyle
parallel veins
scattered vacular bundles
fibrous root system
floral parts arranged in threes
Dicot
2 cotyledons
veins are netlike
vascular bundles arranged ring like
taproot
4/5 floral parts
Parenchyma cells
-thin and flexible primary walls
-lack secondary walls
-protoplast has large central vacuole
-perform most of the metabolic functions of the plant, synthesizing and storing various organic products
Collenchyma cells
thinnger primary walls
-grouped in strands of cylinders
-help support young parts of plant
-provide support without regaining strength
Schlerenchyma cells:
fiber
-long, slender, tapered, usually in bundles
-used commercially
Schlerenchyma cells:
sclereids
-shorter than fibers and irregular in shape
-nutshells.seed owe hardness to scleriids same w/ pear grittyness
Tracheids
-secondary walls made of lignin
-help in support as wells as transport of water
vessel elements
ends are perforated to allow water to flow freely
apical meristems
located at the tips of roots and the buds of shoots, they help the plant grow in length

aka primary growth

enables roots to ramify throughout the soil and shoots to increase their exposure to light and C02
lateral meristems
encourages secondary growth, progressive thickening of the roots and shoots
vascular cambium
produces secondary xylem (wood) and phloem
cork cambium
produces tough, thick covering for stems and roots that replace the epidermis
dermal tissue system aka epidermis
single layer of tightly packed cells that covers and protects all young parts of the plant
Primary body plant
consists of three tissue systems: dermal, vascular, and ground tissue
primary meristem
-protoderm
-procambium
-ground meristem

all produce dermal, vascular, and ground tissue
protoderm
outermost primary meristem, gives rise to the epidermis, single layer of cells covering the root
procambium
gives rise to the stele, which is the vascular bundle where xylem and phloem develop
ground meristem
gives rise to the ground tissue system, which consists of parenchyma cells, fills the cortex (region between the stele and epidermis)
Auxins
-use on cutting to promote growth
-mostly in tip of plant
-cell elongation and fruit development
-in phototropism, collect on dark side and elongate cells tipping
gibberellins
promoote stem elongation
cytokinius
promotes cell division and differentiation
ethylene
induces lead abscission, promotes fruit rippening and inhibits growth
abscisic acid
inhibits lead absicssion, promots bud and lead dormancy