Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/54

Click to flip

54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
undernourishment
deficient in calories
overnourishment
obesity
essential nutrients
materials that must be obtained in pre-assembled form; animals can't make from raw materials. [amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, minerals]
malnourished
missing 1+ essential nutrients
suspension-feeders
sift small food particles from water
substrate-feeders
live in/on their food source
deposit-feeders
live in/eat dirt
fluid-feeders
suck nutrient-rich fluid from living host
bulk-feeders
eat lots! +big pieces of food
ingestion
act of eating
digestion
process of breaking down food into molecules small enough for body to absorb
enzyatic hydrolysis
splitting molecules by adding water; breaking bonds
absorption
cells take up small molecules
elimination
pee/poop it out
intracellular digestion
food vacuoles+ lysosomes; digests in itself
exgracellular digestion
breakdown of food outside of cells; extracellular digestion cavity
gastrovascular cavities
digestive tracts: single openings. (ex. hydras)dual role: mouth and anus
systole
contraction phase
diastole
relaxation phase
heart rate
#beats per minute
stroke volume
amt of blood pumped by left ventricle in each contraction
sinoatrial (SA) node
pace maker, sets rate/timing when all cardiac muscle cells contract
endothelium
lines lumen of all blood vessels. single layer of flattened cells; provides smooth surface.
atria
receive blood returning to heart
ventricle
pump blood out of heart
arteries
carry blood away from heart to organs. fatty & fastest
arterioles
arteries >> _____. in organs, small
capillaries
arterioles >> _______. thin, porous, slowest. make up beds
venules << veins
capillaries >_______ > ______. return blood to heart
red blood cells
transport oxygen, no nucleus, hemoglobin, lack mitochondria,
white blood cells
function for defense, fight infection,
platelets
clotting, no nucleus
fibrinogen/fibrin
inactive/aggregates into thread, framework of clot.
thrombus
clot in blood vessels; block blood flow
heart attack
death of cardiac muscle tissue
stroke
death of nervous tissue
tidal volume
volume of air animal inhales and exhales w/ each breath
vital capacity
max tidal volume, forced breathing
residual volume
breath after we exhale
breathing control centers
medulla oblongata, pons
too much CO2
pH drops, medulla inc rate of breathing
hemoglobin
in red blood cells, 4 subunits, 4 units O2, iron actually binds to O2. transports O2/CO2
bohr shift
drop in pH lowers affinity for O2 in hemoglobin
first line of defense
skin, mucous membranes, secretions
2nd line of defense
phag. white blood cells, antimicrobial proteins, inflam. response
3rd line of defense
specific, lymphocytes, antibodies
chemokines
attract phagocytes to an area
complement system
20 serum proteins, carry out cascade of steps leading to lysis of microbes
interferons
secreted by virus infected cells, induce neighboring cells to inhibit viral reproduction
antigen
foreign molecule
Class I MHC
glycoproteins, found on almost cells
Class II MHC
glycoproteins, specific cells
Humoral response
B cell activation,
cell mediated response
depends on T cell actions