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26 Cards in this Set

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The totality of an organism's chemical reactions
Metabolism
Release energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds
Catabolic Pathways
Consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones
Anabolic pathways
Form of potential energy that is stored in molecules as a result of the arrangement of the atoms in those molecules
Chemical energy
Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed
First Law of Thermodynamics (Conservation of Energy)
Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Measure of disorder or randomness
Entropy
The portion of a system's energy that can perform work when temperature is uniform throughout the system - G = H - TS
Free energy
A spontaneous chemical reaction in which there is a net release of free energy
Exergonic Reaction
A nonspontaneous chemical reaction in which free energy is absorbed from the surrondings
Endergonic Reaction
The use of an exergonic process to drive an endergonic one - ATP is responsible for mediating most of this in cells
Energy Coupling
Cell's three main kinds of work
1. Mechanical Work
2. Transport Work
3. Chemical Work
Nitrogeneous base (Adenine) bonded to ribose with three phosphates attatched - bonds between the tail can be broken by hydrolysis
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
Recipient of the phosphate group - becomes more reactive and less stable
Phosphorylated
Chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by a reaction
Catalyst
Catalytic protein
Enzyme
The energy required to break bonds in the reactant molecules (initial investment of energy) - Ea
Activation Energy
The reactant an enzyme acts on
Substrate
Enzyme molecule that actually binds to the substrate - induces the enzyme to slightly change shape
Active site
Nonprotein helpers for catalytic activity - may be bound tightly to the active site as permanent residents, or loosly and reversibly same are inorganic
Cofactors
Organic cofacter molecule - ex. vitamins
Coenzyme
Resemble normal substrate molecules and compete for admission into the active site - reduce the productivity of enzymes by blocking substrates - can be overcome by increase of substrates
Competitive inhibitors
Impede enzymatic reactions by binding to another part of the enzyme - causes enzyme molecule to change shape, unreceptive or less effective
Noncompetitive inhibitors
Specific receptor site on some part of the enzyme molecule remote from the active site - may either inhibit or stimulate the enzyme's activity
Allosteric site
The switchign off of a metabolic pathway by its end product, which acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within the pathway
Feedback inhibition
Amplifies the response of enzymes to substrates - one substrate molecule primes an enzyme to accept additional substrate molecules more readily
Cooperativity