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### 30 Cards in this Set

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 Opposite ends of the molecule have opposite charges Polar molecule Opposite charges Collectively, hydrogen bonds hold the substance together - contributes to the transport of water against gravity in plants - capillary action - surface tension very high in water - H-Bonds between molecules on surface and below - lets life live on the surface Cohesion Hold substance together Clinging of one substance to another Adhesion Clinging Measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid due to hydrogen bonds Surface tension Difficulty to stretch or break Energy of motion Kinetic energy Motion Measure of the total quantity of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter Heat Total quantity of kinetic energy Measures the intensity of heat due to the average kinetic energy of the molecules Temperature Average kinetic energy of the molecules Indicates temperature Celsius scale Indication The amount of heat energy it takes to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1 degree Celsius - also the amount of heat htat 1g of water releases when it cools by 1 degree Celsius Calorie (cal) Amount of energy 1,000 cal; the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water by 1 degree Celsius Kilocalorie (kcal) 1,000 cal 0.239 cal; Calorie = 4.184 J Joule (J) The amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1g of that substance to change its temperature by 1 degree Celsius - Water: 1 cal/g/Degree Celsius Specific Heat The quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1g of it to be converted from the liquid to the gaseous state - heat is carried away with the water vapor Heat of vaporization Surface of the liquid that remains behind gets cooled down, because the "hottest" molecules are more likely to leave as gas - sweating and transpiration Evaporative cooling A liquid that is a completely homogeneous mixture of two or more substances Solution Dissolving agent of a solution Solvent Substance that is dissolved Solute Water is the solvent Aquaeous solution Sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion Hydration shell Whether ionic or polar, any substance that has an affinity for water - substance doesn't have to dissolve Hydrophilic Substances that are non-ionic and nonpolar seem to repel water Hydrophobic The sum of the weights of all the atoms in a molecule Molecular weight The number of moles of solue per liter of solution - most used for aqueous solutions Molarity A hydrogen atom leaves its electron behind, a single proton with a charge of +1 Hydrogen ion The molecule that has lost a proton with a charge of -1 Hydroxide ion Solutes that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution Acid Substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution or increase hydroxide Base The negative logarithm (base 10) of the hydrogen ion concentration - 10 fold difference between numbers pH Substances that minimize changes in concentrations of H+ and OH- in a solution - accepts hydrogen ions from the solution when they are in excess and donating hydrogen ions to the solution when they have been depleted Buffers Rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than pH 5.6 - presence in the atmosphere or sulfur and nitrogen oxides Acid precipitation