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30 Cards in this Set

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Opposite ends of the molecule have opposite charges
Polar molecule
Opposite charges
Collectively, hydrogen bonds hold the substance together - contributes to the transport of water against gravity in plants - capillary action - surface tension very high in water - H-Bonds between molecules on surface and below - lets life live on the surface
Cohesion
Hold substance together
Clinging of one substance to another
Adhesion
Clinging
Measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid due to hydrogen bonds
Surface tension
Difficulty to stretch or break
Energy of motion
Kinetic energy
Motion
Measure of the total quantity of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter
Heat
Total quantity of kinetic energy
Measures the intensity of heat due to the average kinetic energy of the molecules
Temperature
Average kinetic energy of the molecules
Indicates temperature
Celsius scale
Indication
The amount of heat energy it takes to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1 degree Celsius - also the amount of heat htat 1g of water releases when it cools by 1 degree Celsius
Calorie (cal)
Amount of energy
1,000 cal; the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water by 1 degree Celsius
Kilocalorie (kcal)
1,000 cal
0.239 cal; Calorie = 4.184 J
Joule (J)
The amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1g of that substance to change its temperature by 1 degree Celsius - Water: 1 cal/g/Degree Celsius
Specific Heat
The quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1g of it to be converted from the liquid to the gaseous state - heat is carried away with the water vapor
Heat of vaporization
Surface of the liquid that remains behind gets cooled down, because the "hottest" molecules are more likely to leave as gas - sweating and transpiration
Evaporative cooling
A liquid that is a completely homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
Solution
Dissolving agent of a solution
Solvent
Substance that is dissolved
Solute
Water is the solvent
Aquaeous solution
Sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion
Hydration shell
Whether ionic or polar, any substance that has an affinity for water - substance doesn't have to dissolve
Hydrophilic
Substances that are non-ionic and nonpolar seem to repel water
Hydrophobic
The sum of the weights of all the atoms in a molecule
Molecular weight
The number of moles of solue per liter of solution - most used for aqueous solutions
Molarity
A hydrogen atom leaves its electron behind, a single proton with a charge of +1
Hydrogen ion
The molecule that has lost a proton with a charge of -1
Hydroxide ion
Solutes that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
Acid
Substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution or increase hydroxide
Base
The negative logarithm (base 10) of the hydrogen ion concentration - 10 fold difference between numbers
pH
Substances that minimize changes in concentrations of H+ and OH- in a solution - accepts hydrogen ions from the solution when they are in excess and donating hydrogen ions to the solution when they have been depleted
Buffers
Rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than pH 5.6 - presence in the atmosphere or sulfur and nitrogen oxides
Acid precipitation