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42 Cards in this Set

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Anything that takes up space and has mass.
Takes up space
A substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions - each have a symbol
Cannot be broken down
A substance consisting of two or more elements combined in a fixed ratio - has characteristics beyond those of its combined elements - emergence of novel properties
Two or more elements combined
Those required by an organism in only minute quantities - ex. Iron (FE) - some needed for all life; some needed for certain species
Trace Elements
Required in minute quantities
Smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element
Smallest unit of matter
A particle having no electrical charge found in the nucleus of an atom
No electrical charge
A subatomic particle with a single positive electrical charge, found in the nucleus of an atom
Positive charge
A subatomic particle witha single negative charge; one or more may move around the nucleus of an atom
Negative charge
An atom's central core, containing protons and neutrons
Atomic Nucleus
Atom's central core
Atomic mass unit - Neutrons and protons have 1 amu
Atomic mass unit
Tells us the number of protons and electrons in an eletrically neutral atom.
Atomic Number
Number of protons and electrons
Sum of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
Mass number
Protons plus neutrons
Approximation of the total mass of an atom
Atomic Weight
Total mass of an atom
One of several atomic forms of an element, each containing a different number of neutrons and thus differing in atomic mass.
Different number of neutrons
The nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off particles and energy; when changing the number of protons, it transforms the atom to a different element
Radioactive Isotope
Decaying nucleus
The ability to do work
Energy that matter stores because of its position or location
Potential Energy
Stored energy
Different states of potential energy that electrons have in an atom
Energy levels (electron shells)
Different states
Electrons in the outermost electron shell; atom's reactivity is dependent on this
Valence electrons
In outermost electron shell
Outermost electron shell
Valence shell
Three-dimensional space where an electron is found 90% of the time - specific number of orbitals of specific shapes - no more than 2 electrons can occupy the same one
3-D space
Attractions that let atoms stay close together
Chemical bonds
The sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms - strongs bonds in aqueous solution - # of pairs = strength of bond
Covalent bond
Strongest bonds
Two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
Held by covalent bonds
A type of molecular notation in which the constituent atoms are joined by lines representing of their atoms
Structural formula
Joined by lines representing of their atoms
A type of molecular notation indicating only the quantity of the constituent atoms
Molecular formula
Quantity of constituent atoms
Two joined covalent bonds
Double covalent bond
Two covalent bonds
The bonding capacity - equals the number of unpaired electrons in the atom's outermost shell
Bonding capacity
The attraction of an atom for the electrons of a covalent bond - the more it is, the more strongly it pulls shared electrons toward itself
Electrons are shared equally
Nonpolar covalent bond
Shared equally
One atom is bonded to a more electronegative atom, the electrons of the bond will not be shared equall, creates partial charges within the molecule
Polar covalent bond
Electrons share unequally
Weak in aqueous solution - creates ions of opposite charge, salts
Ionic bonds
Ions of opposite charge
Charged atom or molecule
Positively charged atom or molecule
+ charged
Negatively charged atom or molecule
- charged
Compounds formed by ionic bonds
Ionic compounds (salts)
Formed by ionic bonds
Forms when a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to one electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative atom - helps hold DNA strands together
Hydrogen bonds
Weak chemical bonds
Weak and occur only when atoms and molecules are very close together - ever-changing "hot spots" of positive and negative charge that enable all atoms and molecules to stick to one another
Van der Walls Interactions
Enables all atoms and molecules to stick to one another
Starting materials of a chemical reaction - only rearrange matter
Starting materials
Result of the reactants of a chemical reaction - the same number of atoms on both sides (Law of Conservation of Matter)
6CO2 + 6H2O = C6H12O6 + 6O2
The point at which the reactions offset one another exactly - their concentrations have stabilized, reactions are still going on; Rate of forward reaction = Rate of reverse
Chemical equilibrium
Concentration of reactants and products is fixed, but not necessarily the same