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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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Heritable feature, eg flower color
Character
Variant for a character, eg purple or white flowers
Trait
When the plants self-polinate, all their offspring are of the same variety
True-breeding
Crossing of two true-breeding varities
Hybridization
True-breeding parents
P Generation
Hybrid offspring
F1 Generation
F1 Hybrid's offspring to self-pollinate; Genotype Ratio: 1:3:1; Phenotype Ratio: 3:1
F2 Generation
Alternative versions of a gene
Allele
Successful expression of a phenotype
Dominant allele
No noticable effect on the organism's appearance
Recessive allele
An organism having a pari of identical alleles for character
Homozygous
An organism having two different alleles for a gene
Heterozygous
Breeding of a recessive homozygote with an organism of dominant phenotype but unknown genotype
Testcross
F1 Hybrids produced to follow only a single character
Monohybrids
F1 hybrids produced to follow two characters
Dihybrids
Independent segregation of each pair of alleles during gamete formation
Law of Independent Assortment
F1 Hybrids have an appearance somewhere inbetween the phenotypes of the two parental variations
Incomplete dominance
The phenotype of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote are indistinguishable
Complete dominance
The two alleles affect the phenotype in separate, distinguishable ways
Codominance
Ability of a gene to affect an organism in many ways
Plieotropy
A gene at one locus alters the phenotype expression of a gene at a second locus
Epistasis
Either - or classification is impossible, because the characters vary in the population along a continuum
Quantitative characters
Effect of two or more genes on a single phenotype character
Polygenic inheritance
Range of phenotypic possiblities over which there may be variation due to environmental influence
Norm of Reaction
Many factors, both genetic and environmental collectively influence phenotype
Multifactorial
Defective or absent chloride channels the plasma membranes
Cystic Fibrosis
Caused by a dysfunctional enzyme that fails to break down brain lipids (gangliosides)
Tay-Sachs disease
Dwarfism, dominant inheritant disorder
Achondroplasia
Degenerative disease of the nervous system
Huntington's Disease