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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Gene's specific location along the length of a chromosome
Single individual is the sole parent and passes copies of all its genes to its offspring - no genetic diversity except with mutation
Asexual reproduction
Group of genetically identical individuals
Any cell other than a sperm or an ovum - sizes of chromosomes and the positions of their centromeres differ
Somatic cell
Chromosomes that are arranged in pairs, starting with the longest chromosomes
Chromosomes that make up a pair - same length, centromere position, and staining pattern
Homologus Chromosomes
Cell with a single chromosome set - 23 chromosomes
Haploid cell
Fertilized egg - 2 haploid sets of chromosomes
Zygote and all other cells having two sets of chromosomes - 46 chromosomes
Diploid cells
Sexually reproducing organisms that havles the chromosome number in the gametes, compensating for hte doubling that occurs at fertilization
Result in 4 daughter cells with half as many chromosomes as the parent cell
Meiosis I and II
Each of the chromosomes replicates - diploid cells centrosomes also replicate
Chromosomes condense, homologus pair us, synapse (synaptonemal complex-protein) attatch to homologus, SC disappears and 4 clustered chromatids (tetrad) appear, centrosomes move away from each other, nuclear envelope and nucleoli disperse, microtubules capture kinetochores, begin moving on to the metaphase plate - 90% of time required for meisos
Prophase I
Sister chromatids move as a single unit along the pole - cell elongates
Anaphase I
Each pole has a haploid set; cytokenesis - cleavage furrows and cell plates;
Telophase I and Cytokenesis
A crossing of nonsister chromatids, two chromatids belonging to separate but homologus chromosomes in meiosis - made in Prophase I
In Metaphase I - random, two alternative possibilites for each pair, each gamete represents one outcome of all possible combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes
Independent Assortment
Produces recombinant chromosomes, combine genes inherited from our two parents, early in Prophase I and in Metaphase II
Crossing Over
A human ovum and a human sperm contain 8 million possible chromosome combinations - zygote with about 64 trillion diploid combinations
Random Fertilization