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35 Cards in this Set

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Vescicles from the smooth ER are on their way to the what?
The Golgi Apparatus
(think of it as transporter)
What is the best evidence that shows how Mitchondria are descendents of endosymbiotic bacteria?
The mitochondria and bacteria possess similar ribosomes & DNA.
When would enzyme production cease?
when the ribosomes in a cell cease to function.
Which Junction allows nieghboring cells in an animal to communicate with one another?
Gap Junctions
Intracellular junctions between plant cells are called ___________.
What is pinocytosis an example of?
Eukaryotic cells are larger than backetia. How can E. Cell's membranes provide higher rate of exchange of material?
-carrier protiens speed the rate of solutes across the plasma membrane
-mitochondria are concentrated near membranes to provede energy for active transport.
-large moleculesa are engulfed by vesicle formation.
Which kind of molecule moves readily though a selectiviley permeable membrane?
small uncharged polar molecules
What kind of pathways do cellualr respiration and ferementation provide?
catabolic pathways and energy yeilding pathways
Redox reactions are important for both respiration and photosynthesis because?
they arelease energy as electrons move closer to electronegative atoms
What process leads to the net production of 2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, and 2 NADH?
Which tranformation of cellular enery evolved first?
Fermentation and glycolysis are ________ processes.
anareobic processes
Which things are capable of phtosynthesis?
plants, algea, and some bacteria.
How does cytokenesis in plant cells differ this process in animal cells?
The golgi appartus produces vesicles that migrate along the microtubles and fuse to become a cell plate.
Distinguish between magnification and resolving power.
magnification- in microscopy is the ratio of an object's image size to its real size.
Resolution- is a measure of the calrity of the image; the min. distance two points can be seperated and still be distinguished as two points.
Decribe the principles,advantages, and limitations of the light microscope, transmission electron microscope,and scanning electron microscope.
light microscopes can magnify effectively to about 1,000 times the actaul size of the speciman- but it will be blurry.
(TEM)- studies the internal ultrastructure of cells, uses electromagnets as lenses.
(sem) is useful to see the detailed study of the surface of a speciman. topography. 3D
Describe the major steps of cell fractionation and explain why it is a useful technique.
the goal of cell fractionation is to take cells apart and seperate the major organells from one another.- uses a centrifuge, it sepeartes by size and density
-this helps helps scientists prepare specific components of cells in bulk quanitity to study their composition and functions.
Explain why there are both upper and lower limits to cell size.
lower limit - cell must have at least room for DNA, proteins and internal structures to survive and
upper limit- enough surface area to obtain nutrients and dispose of wastes.
Explain the advantages of compartmentalization in eukaryotic cells.
Internal membranes compartmentalize the functions of eukaryotic cell
-Provide localized environmental conditions necessary for specific metabolic processes.
- May participate in metabolic reactions since many enzymes are incorporated directly into the membrane
Explain how the nucleolus contributes to protien synthesis.
consists of nucleolar organizers and ribosomes in various stages of production.
-Can produce up to 10,000 ribosomes per minute in an actively growing cell.
How does the nucleus control protien synthesis in the cytoplasm?
Messenger RNA (mRNA) transcribed in the nucleus from DNA instructions. -------> Passes through nuclear pores into cytoplasm. -------> Attaches to ribosomes where the genetic message is translated into primary protein structure
Describe the structure anad function of a eukaryotic ribosome.
smallest organelle.functions in protien synthesis. thye build them.
-composed of rRNA, and large and small subunits.
Distinguish between free and bound ribosomes in terms of location and function.
Bound and free ribosomes are structurally identical and interchangeable.
Free ribosomes = Ribosomes suspended in the cytosol.
¥ Most proteins made by free ribosomes will function in the cytosol.
Bound ribosomes = Ribosomes attached to the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum.
¥ Generally make proteins that are destined for membrane inclusion or export.
what is thr structure of the nuclear envelope?
-double membrane system. 2 lipid bilayers.
surrounds chromatin/nucleoplasm.
-Pores allow exchange.
Describe the structure and functions of each component of the endomembrane system.
The endomembrane system includes:
¥ Nuclear envelope.
¥ Endoplasmic reticulum.
¥ Golgi apparatus-0rganelle made of stacked, flattened membranous sacs (cisternae), that modifies, stores and routes products of the endoplasmic reticulum
¥ Lysosomes-An organelle which is a membrane-enclosed bag of hydrolytic enzymes that digest all major classes of macromolecules.
¥ Vacuoles.
¥ Plasma membrane (not actually an endomembrane, but related to endomembrane system)
*all organelles in which lipids are assmebled and protiends are produced and modified.
Name three different kinds of vacuoles, giving the function of each kind.
Food vacuole = Vacuole formed by phagocytosis which is the site of intracellular digestion in some protozoa and macrophages.
Contractile vacuole = Vacuole, found in some fresh-water protozoa, that pumps excess water from the cell.
Central vacuole = Large vacuole found in most mature plant cells. it protects, store organic compounds. absorbs water->plant growth
Compare the structure and functions of smooth and rough ER.
Rough ER manufactures secretory proteins and membrane.
smooth ER lacks ribosomes: a. synthesizes lipids, phosolipids and steroids.
b. participates in carbohydrate metabolism, c.detoxifies drugs and poisons.
d. Stores calcium ions necessary for muscle contraction.
Describe the -cis and -Trans sides of the golgi apparatus.
¥ Two poles are called the cis face (forming face) and the trans face (maturing face).
¥ Cis face, which is closely associated with transitional ER, receives products by accepting transport vesicles from the ER. A vesicle fuses its membrane to the cis face of the Golgi and empties its soluble contents into the Golgi's cisternal space.
¥ Trans face pinches off vesicles from the Golgi and transports molecules to other sites.
Describe the energy conversion carried out by mitochondria and chloroplasts.
mitochondria uses energy from organic molecules to produce ATP. C6H1206+602 --> 6CO2+ 6H20 + energy

chrolorplast, "photosynthesis" 6CO2 + 6H2O ---> C6H1206+602 + energy
Describe evidence that mitochondria and chloroplasts are semiautomous organelles.
both contaim ribosomes and some DNA that programs a small portion of their own protien synthesis.
-they are semiautonomous organelles b/c grow and redroduce within the cell.
Explain the roles of peroxisomes in eukaryotic cells.
they contain enzymes that break down H2O2 formed during metabolism of alcohols.
Identify 3 functional compartments of a chloroplast. Explain the importance of compartmentalization in chloroplast function.
1. Intermembrane Space.
The chloroplast Intermembrane space is bound by a double membrane which partitions its contents from the cytosol.
A narrow intermembrane space separates the two membranes.
2.Thylakoid Space.
Thylakoids form another membranous system within the chloroplast. The thylakoid membrane segregates the interior of the chloroplast into two compartments: thylakoid space and stroma.
3. Stroma. Those steps that use chemical energy to convert carbon dioxide to sugar occur in the stroma.

Stroma = Viscous fluid outside the thylakoids.

Describe structure of the mitochondrion. and explain importance of compartmentalization?
Double membrane system.
there are two distinct departments.
1.Intermembrane Space
¥ Narrow region between the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes.
¥ Reflects the solute composition of the cytosol, because the outer membrane is permeable to small solute molecules.

2.Mitochondrial Matrix
¥ Compartment enclosed by the inner mitochondrial membrane.
¥ Contains enzymes that catalyze many metabolic steps of cellular respiration.
¥ Some enzymes of respiration and ATP production are actually embedded in the inner membrane.
What are the functiosn of the cytoskeleton?
-Protein fibers that support and give shape to a cell, involved in organelle movement throughout cell, chromosome movement during cell division and large cell movements (cell motility and cytokinesis)
-3 Groups of Fibers classified according to size: 1.Mircrotubules (thickest) 2.Intermediated filaments (middle sized) 3.Microfilaments (thinnest)