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28 Cards in this Set

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Photosynthesis
-To make sugar
-Process by which plants use light energy to make food from CO2 and H20
Autotrophs
-Make their own food
-Producers
-Photosynthetic: make from organic molecules and sunlight; plants, algae, cyanobacteria
-Chemosynthetic: make from inorganic/organic molecules (hydrogen sulfide); bacteria, protists
Leaf Structures
-Mesophyll: tissue on interior of leaf where chloroplasts are
-Stomata: pores where CO2 enters and O2 exits
Chloroplast
-Contain pigments, chlorophyll (absorbs light energy)
Chloroplast Structures
-Outer Membrane, Intermembrane Space, Inner Membrane
-Stroma: thick fluid in inner membrane (sugars are made here)
-Thylakoids: contain chlorophyll
-Grana: stack of thylakoids
Photosynthesis Reaction
6C02 + 12H20 >SUNLIGHT> C6H12O6 + 6H20 + 6O2
Photolysis
-Splitting water with sunlight
-Sunlight 'excites' electrons
Oxidized
-Water molecules split > forms O2
-Lose electrons and 2H+ ions
-LEO: Lose elections=oxidized (Leo the Lion goes Ger)
Reduced
-Carbon dioxide > C6H12O6
-Electrons and H+ ions added
-GER: Gain Electrons=reduced (Leo the Lion goes Ger)
Convert
-Light energy to chemical energy stored in the sugar molecules
-Light stored in sugar
Light Reaction
-In Grana (Stacks)
-Convert light energy to chemical energy and oxygen
-Solar to chemical
-Absorbtion of light energy
-excite electrons by that energy
-form ATP, NADPH from electron transport chain
-Products: O2, NADPH, ATP
Calvin Cycle
-In Stroma (Fluid)
-Series of reactions that assemble sugar from carbon dioxide and energy-containing products of the light reaction
Sunlight
-Radiation/Electromagnetic energy
Electromagnetic Energy
-Measured in Nanometers
-Travels in rhythmic wave
-Wavelength: distance between crests of adjacent waves
Electromagnetic spectrum
-Gamma Rays > X-Rays > Ultra Violet Rays > Visible Light > Infrared rays > Micro Waves > Radio Waves
-Visible Light: VBGYOR
-V(380NM), BG(500), YO(600), R(750)
- <--- Increase in energy (380 = most energy)
Photosystems
-Capture solar power
-Within Thylakoid Membrane
-Reaction Center: chlorophyll a donates excited electron
-200 - 300 pigments in a photosystem
-Absorb light, photolysis (split water), excited electron through electron acceptor, to primary electron acceptors (oxidized)
Pigments
-In the Grana, absorb light
-Chlorophyll a
-Chlorophyll b
-Carotenoids
Chlorophyll a
-Blue, Violet, Red
-Directly involed in light reaction
Chlorophyll b
-Blue, Orange
-Not directly involed in the light reaction
Carotenoids
-Blue
-Absorb/dissipate excessive light that could damage chlorophyll
Photon
-Packet of energy
-When absorbed, it is incorporated into elections
-Ground State > "excited" which are unstable and reemit abosorbed energy and go back to ground
-Energy is then passed to neighboring molecules or lost as heat
-In chlorophyll, electrons, e to g, after glow is called fluorescence
Chlorphyll, Oxidized
> Primary election acceptor (neighboring molecules), reduced

*Triggers the light reaction
Antenna Molecules
-Other pigment molecules like chlorophyll b and carotenoids
Photosystem Types
-I: chlorophyll a of the reaction center is P700, absorbs red light best at 700nm wavelength
-II: chlorophyll a of reaction center is P680, absorbs o/r light best at 680nm.
-Different proteins, different optimums for light absorbtion.
Photophosphorylation
-Process of making ATP from ADP and P using sunlight
Electron Transport Chain
-Electrons lose energy as they travel down the ETC and the energy lost gets stored in ATP and NADPH
Chemiosmotic Theory
-Photolysis occurs, H+ ions are created and accumulate inside thylakoids
-pH decreases in thylakoid and increases in stroma, creates pH gradient
Channel Proteins
-ATP Synthases
-Allows H+ ions to flow from the thylakoid to the stroma
-Generates energy for ATP synthases to phosphorylate ADP to ATP
-3 H+ ions for 1 ATP