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23 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
organic chemistry
the study of carbon compounds and the chemistry of living things
organic molecules
A molecule with a basic skeleton made up of carbon atoms
vitalism
the belief in a life force outside the jurisdiction of physical and chemical laws
mechanism
the belief that all natural phenomena, including the processes of life, are governed by physical and chemical laws
hyrdocarbons
molecules with carbon and hydrogen only
isomer
compounds with the same molecular but different structural formulas
structural isomer
differ in covalent arrangement of atom
geometric isomer
same covalent relationships and differ in spatial relationships caused by double bonds
enantiomer
are mirror images caused by having a carbon bonded to four different things; asymmetrical carbon
asymmetric carbon
the middle carbon in an enantiomer that is attached to four different atoms
functional group
groups of elements commonly attached to C that are involved in chemical reactions; determine behavior of molecule
hydroxyl group
a hyrdogen is bonded to an oxygen, which is then bonded to the carbon skeleton; is polar and dissolves in water
alcohol
organic compounds containing hydroxyl groups
carbonyl group
consists of a carbon atom joined to an oxygen atom by a double bond; acts as an acid
aldehyde
organic compound where the carbonyl group is on the end of a carbon skeleton
ketone
organic compound where the carbonyl group is located somewhere other than the end of a carbon skeleton; at least three carbons long
carboxyl group
where an oxygen atom is double-bonded to a carbon atom that is also bonded to a hydroxyl group
carboxylic acid
compounds containing carboxyl groups; organic acids
amino group
consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and to the carbon skeleton
amine
an organic compound in the amino group
sulfhydryl
consists of a sulfur atom bonded to an atom of hydrogen, resembling a hydroxyl group in shape
thiol
organic compounds containing sulfhydryls
phosphate group
contain a phosphate ion covalently attached by one of its oxygen atoms to the carbon skeleton; transwers energy between organic molecules