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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
biotechnology
manipulations of organisms or components.
recombinant DNA
nucleotide sequences from 2 sources are combined.
genetic engeneering
manipulation of genes for practical purposes.
clone
daughter cells of recombinant bacterium with copies of gene of protien.
restriction enzyme/restriction endonucleases
cut up DNA
restriction site
DNA sequence where enzyme cuts.
Sticky end
single strand end of restriction fragment "hanging off" of rest of double stranded DNA.
DNA ligase
puts together fragments of DNA cut up by restriction endonucleases.
cloning vector
original plasmid that can carry foregin DNA into cell and replicate.
nucleic acid hybridization
using a short DNA or RNA as nucleic acid probe.
nucleic acid probe
complementary to sequence that one wishes to find.
dentaturation
seperation of 2 strands.
genomic library
complete set of plasmid clones.
cDNA (complementary DNA)
double stranded DNA made from RNA transcript (only exon DNA)
cDNA library
cloned cDNA's that make up part of genome.
expression vector
cloning vector with active promoter upstream of restriction site where Eukaryotic gene can be substituted.
elecrtoporation
electrical pulse to solution creates holes in plamsa membranes where DNA can enter.
polymerase chain reaction
when fragments are cloned to create a fragmented piece on both ends.
restriction fragment analysis
detects differences in nucelotide sequences of DNA molecules.
gel elecrophoresis
gell as molecular seive to seperate different sized sequences. DNA is negatively charged, so they move toward positively charged end.
southern blotting
gell elecrophoresis and hybridization.
linkage map
genetic markers on choromome that help map.
physical map
distance between markers expressed physically
bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC)
artifical insert of bacterial chrosmosome.
genomics
study of whole sets of genes and gene interaction.
expressed sequence tags (EST)
short coding sequences similar to those present in known genes.
in virtro mutagens
mutagens as sequence of clones genes that determine gene function.
RNA interference (RNAi)
blocks genes in mRNA to see which protein is absent.
DNA microarray assays
using cDNA to test which genes are expressed.
single-nucleotide polymorphisms (snpips)
base-pair variations in the genome detected by sequencing.
gene therapy
alteration of afflicted individual's genes
DNA fingerprint
specific band patterns.
transgenic animal
gene of one animal put into gene of another.
Ti plamid
common vector.
genetically modified organism
organism that has aquired genes by artificial means.