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45 Cards in this Set

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Biology
The scientific study of life
DNA
The smallest unit that has the capacity for life (signature molecule of a cell)
Enzymes
Molecules that build, split, and rearrange other molecules
Inheritance
Acquisition of traits through the transmission of DNA from parents to offspring.
Reproduction
Actual mechanisms of inheritance
Development
Transformation of a new individual to a multicelled adult (often with designated tissues and organs)
Energy
A capacity to do work
Metabolism
Capacity to obtain and convert energy and use it to maintain itself, grow, and produce more cells
Receptors
Molecules and structures that detect stimuli
Stimulus
Specific form of energy that can be recepted.
Homeostasis
State when organisms respond to energy changes so that their internal operating conditions usually remain the same.
Cell
organization unit having a capacity to survive and reproduce on its own, building blocks, energy inputs, and suitable conditions.
Multicelled organisms
Consist of specialized interdependent cells, usually organized in tissues and organs.
Population
A group of organisms of the same kind.
Community
All populations of all species living in the same area.
Ecosystem
A community together with its physical and chemical environment.
Biosphere
Includes all parts of the Earth’s crust, waters, and atmosphere in which organisms live.
Producers
Plants and other organisms that make their own food.
Consumers
Organisms that use food energy stored in producers’ tissues.
Decomposers
Break down sugars and other biological molecules into simpler materials.
Species
Different kinds of organisms
Linnaeus
Classification scheme with a two-part name for ever species
Genus
Encompasses all closely related species, designated in first part of name.
Archaebacteria/eubacteria
Single cells of prokaryotic; do not contain a nucleus, referred to as just bacteria
Protistans
Eukaryotic; DNA in a nucleus, larger and more internally complex.
Fungi
Most are multicelled decomposers or parasites that digest food outside of the fungal body.
Plants
Multicelled, photosynthetic producers (sunlight’s energy --> food)
Animals
Multicelled consumers that ingest the tissues of other organisms.
Mutation
Original source of variations in heritable traits (harmful or harmless)
Adaptive trait
Any form of a trait that helps an individual survive and reproduce under prevailing environmental conditions.
Evolution
Heritable change in a line of descent over time.
Artificial selection
Change in traits taking place under contrived, manipulated conditions.
Natural selection
A result of differences in survival and reproduction among individuals of a population that vary in one or more of their shared, heritable traits.
Antibiotics
Kill bacterial and fungal competitors for nutrients.
Hypothesis
Educated guess
Prediction
If ____, then ____.
Models
Theoretical, detailed descriptions or analogies to help visualize something not directly observed.
Inductive logic
Deriving a general statement from specific observations.
Deductive logic
Making inferences about specific consequences or predictions that must follow a hypothesis.
Experiment
Simplify observation in nature or the laboratory by manipulating and controlling the conditions under which the observations are made.
Control group
A standard for comparison with one or more experimental groups.
Variables
Specific aspects of objects or events that may differ or change over time and among individuals.
Sampling error
Risking tests with subsets that are not representative of the whole
Scientific theory
A hypothesis that has not been disproved and is sued to interpret other data
Quantitative terms
Unbiased results and data