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69 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
immune system functions to
protect against pathogens and hazardous foreign substances.
Pathogen
disease causing agent
Antigen
any foreign material that causes and immune response
Nonspecific Defenses
protect from most pathogens without discrimination
What are two physical barriers that act as nonspecific lines of defense?
the skin and mucous membranes
Skin as a barrier
low pH (3-5) due to sweat
Mucous as a barrier
traps particles and microorganisms
Biochemical Barriers?
tears, salive (lysozyme), sweat
Red Cells
transport O2 and CO2
Platelets
initiate clot
White cells aka
leukocytes
there are two main groups of white cells they are
Phagocytes(Non Specific) and Lymphocytes (Specific)
Basophils
Phagocytes
Release histamin
Promote T-cell development
Eosinophils
Phagocytes
Kill large parasites by discharging destructive enzymes
Neutrophils
Phagocytes
Engulf large invading pathogens
Make up about 70% of WBC
Mast cells
Phagocytes
Release histamines when damaged
(Undercover mall cop)
Monocytes
Phagocytes
Become macrophages
Macrophages
Phagocytes
Engulf and digest microorganisms
Dendritic Cells
Phagocytes
Present antigen to T-cells
B Cells
Lymphocytes
Differentiate to form plasma cells and memory cells
Formed in Bone Marrow
Plasma Cells
Lymphocytes
Secrete Antibodies
Draw with squiggly lines because they need lots of ribosomes to make and secrete antibodies
Memory Cells
Lymphocytes
kill effectively next time there is an infection.
T Cells
Lymphocyte
Kill virus infected cells
Form in Thymus Gland
Natural Killer Cells
NOT SPECIFIC
attack and lyse virus infected or cancerous body cells
What are three antimicrobial proteins?
Lysozyme, complement proteins and interferons.
Lysozyme
in tears and saliva
break down cell wall
Complement Proteins
A group of proteins that help lyse invaders
activate phagocytes and puncture the invader
Interferons
released by virus infected cells
activate phagocytes
stimulate production of proteins in neighboring clles that will inhibit viral replication
There are three steps to Inflammation.
Yes Sir.
Step One of Inflammation:
-Damaged mast cells release histamine
-Histamine diffuse into capillaries
Step Two of Inflammation
-Capillaries dilate and become "leaky"
-Plasma and phagocytes move to infected tissue and destroy anything foreign.
-VASODILATION: causes edema(swelling)
Step Three of Inflammation
-Phagocytes engulf bacteria and cells.
-Platelets produce fibrineogen (protein)
Specific Defenses
innate defense; aimed at a specific target
What are the four key features of specific defense?
a) specificity
b) diversity
c) memory
d) self/non self recognition
Specificity
-->Antigen --> Specific Antibodies
Diversity
can protect against millions of types of antigens using receptors
Memory
acquired immunity: react faster the second time, cause memory cells to be makde the first time
Self/Non Self Recognition
biochemical finger print, self marker, produced by groups of genes
Organ Donor are...
tested for MHC markers
(Major Histocompatibility Complex)
The two players of the specific defense system are
lymphocytes and
the human immune system
Lymph
fluid from and other tissues
Lymph Node
WBC's inspect and filter lymph
Thymus Gland
T cells are made here
Thoracic Duct
carries lymph and goes back into circulatory system
spleen
lymphocytes accumulate
Bone marrow
B cells are made here
What are the three types of T cells?
Cytotoxic T-cell
Memory T-cell
Helper T-cell
Helper T-cell
secrete cytokines (protein molecules that activate phagocytes)
There are two types of acquired immunity, what are they?
active and passive
Active Acquired Immunity
Through recovery or vaccination
Vaccination
give you the whole weakened organism
Immunization
give you fragments of organism
Passive Acquired Immunity
transferred from other people

ex: mom to enfant via breast milk
What are the two types of Immune Responses?
Humoral Immunity
Cell Mediated Immunity
Antibodies aka
Immunoglobulins
Structure of Antibodies
4 polypeptide chains
(2 heavy, 2 light)
What are the three functions of Antibodies?
a) attach to epitopes and neutralize active site
b) "clumps" antigens
c) activate complement proteins that lyse cells
IgG
Gammaglobin
most abundant, free floating
IgM
1st response in infection
IgD
on B-cells
IgA
prevents attachment of viruses and bacteria to epithelial cells (mucous lining)
IgE
cause release of histamine (on mast cells and basophils)
Opsonization
coating of pathogens with antibodies which trigger the activation of phagocytic cells
Transfusions
A,B, Rh proteins surface of RBC's
-Mom can take immunosupressors so she doesnt make and send harmful antibodies to the baby
Grafts and Transplants
MHC's of patient and donor must match
Use to suppress immune system
Allergies
Hypersensitivity
Due to change in self MHC's by chemicals or body not tolerating and over-reacting to "harmless" agents
Immunodeficiency
stress inhibits function of T-cells
AIDS and HIV
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Human Immunodeficiency Virus

leaves patients vulnerable to opportunistic diseases
Autoimmunity
immune system can no longer tolerate self-molecules and immune response against self-cells