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56 Cards in this Set

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Contains a lot of hydrogen ions (H+); If dissolved in water, will release many hydrogen ions.
The clinging of one substance to another.
A base; A compound whose water-based solutions have pH higher than 7 and turns red litmus paper blue; reacts with acid to form salts
Amino Acids
Organic molecules possessing both carboxyl and amino groups. --serve as the monomers of proteins.
smallest unit of an element that retains its characteristics properties.
Autotrophs (Producers)
An organism that makes its own food and does not require previously formed organic materials from the environment.
excess of base; amount of base higher atomically than that of the acid
Capillary Action
when capillary tube is made of polar substance and water climbs up with the attraction great between the water molecules and molecules of tube.
A sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharides) or polymers (polysaccharides).
A structural polysaccharide of cell walls, consisting of glucose monomers joined by b-1, 4-glycosidic linkages
Chemical Reaction
process in which one of more substances are changed chemically into one or more different substances.
The binding together of like molecules, often by hydrogen bonds.
A chemical combination, in a fixed ratio, of two or more elements.
Dehydration Synthesis (Condensation)
chemical reaction between two molecules which links them together and expels water molecule.
Combination of two amino acids by means of a peptide.
Double sugars, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)
A double-stranded helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell’s proteins.
Negatively Charged Particles
Any substance that cannot be broken down to any other substance.
Ester Bonds
Bonds formed between the glycerol molecule and fatty acids (through dehydration synthesis).
Fat (triacylglycerol)
A biological compound consisting of three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule.
One of the most common monosaccharides that is commonly found in fruits.
Functional Groups
Specific configurations of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions.
The most common monosaccharide, six-carbon sugar produced when plants capture sunlight.
An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.
Glycosidic Bond
bond between two glucose molecules.
Harold Urey
Help form heterotroph hypothesis; simulated primitive earth in lab.
Heat Capacity
Quantity of heat required to change the temperature of a substance by 1 degree.
Heterotroph Hypothesis
Theory that earliest life forms were most likely heterotrophs relying on other organic molecules for energy.
Living organisms that rely on organic molecules for food
Hydrogen Bonds
Types of weak chemical bonds formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule.
A chemical process that lyses or splits molecules by the addition of water; an essential process in digestion.
Having an affinity/likeness for water.
Having an aversion to water; tending to coalesce and form droplets in water.
Inorganic Compounds
Molecules that do not contain carbon atoms.
The family of compounds, including fats, phospholipids, and steroids, that are insoluble in water.
The simplest carbohydrates, active alone or serving a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. Also known as simple sugars, the molecular formulas of monosaccharides are generally some multiple of CH2O.
A solution or compound that is neither alkaline or acidic.
Uncharged particles.
Nucleic Acids (polynucleotides)
A biological molecule (such as RNA or DNA) that allows organism to reproduce; polymers composed of monomers called nucleotides joined by covalent bonds (phosphodiester linkages) between the phosphate of one nucleotide and the sugar of the next nucleotide.
The building blocks of nucleic acids, consisting of five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
Core of the atom where protons and neutrons are packed together.
Oparin and Haldane
Scientists that proposed that primitive atmosphere contained methane, ammonia, hydrogen and water, and that these gases collided to form molecules we know today.
Organic Compounds
Chemical compounds that contain skeleton of carbon atoms.
Peptide Bond
The covalent bond between two amino acid units, formed by condensation synthesis.
Molecules that constitute the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.
pH Scale
A measure of hydrogen ion concentration equal to -log [H+] and ranging from 0 to 14.
One of a family of closely related plant organelles, including chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and amyloplasts (leucoplasts).
containing partial positive/negative charge.
String of joined amino acids.
Polymers of up to over a thousand monosaccharides, formed by condensation synthesis.
A three-dimensional biological polymer constructed from a set of 20 different monomers called amino acids.
positively charged particles.
RNA (Ribonucleic Acid)
A single stranded nucleic acid molecule involved in protein synthesis, the structure of which is specified by DNA.
Stanley Miller
Help form heterotroph hypothesis; simulated primitive environment in lab.
A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose.