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24 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Organic Chemistry
the stuffy of carbon compounds
Hydrocarbons
organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen
Functional Groups
the compounds of organic molecules that are most commonly involved in chemical reactions
How does carbon account for the great diversity seen in organisms?
Even though the same basic elements are fairly uniform in organisms almost anything can be built with carbon
What contribution did Jons Jakob Berzelius make to science?
Berzelius found that there were organic and inorganic compounds
What is vitalism?
the belief in a life fore outside the jurisdiction of physical and chemical laws
What discovery did Friedrich Wohler make and how did this challenge the belief in vitalism?
organic materials could be made synthetically. Kolbe showed that they could be made with inorganic substances. Real life was not necessary to create organic material.
What experiment did Stanley miller perform dealing with the origin of life?
a synthesis of how organisms might have been early on the earth.
What is a mechanism?
the belief that all natural phenomena, including the processes of life, are governed by physical and chemical laws
How many covalent bonds does carbon make and why is this so?
four because it can gain or give to form four bonds. Tetravalence.
Why is carbon dioxide such an important molecule
it forms the skeletons of most organic molecules which allows diversity, complexity and bonds with other atoms
Why is petroleum called a fossil fuel?
it contains the partially decomposed remains of organisms that lived millions of year ago
Why don’t oil and fat mix with water?
they are hydrophobic because the bonds between hydrogen and carbon and nonpolar
What is a structural isomer?
an isomer that differs in the placement of covalent bonds (usually single but can be double)
What is a geometric isomer?
different spatial arrangements because the double bonds prohibit free rotation like the singles
What is an enantiomer?
isomers that are mirror images of each other
Give an example of a geometric isomer
the biochemistry of vision involves a light-induced change of rhodopsin from one geometric isomer to another
What is an asymmetric carbon?
a carbon attached to four atoms or groups. They can be arranged to mirror each other in two ways. Central carbon.
What is the significance of an enantiomer in the pharmaceutical industry?
2 enantiomers might not do the same thing. While some of thalidomide fought morning sickness the other caused birth defects.
What is the difference between estradiol and testosterone?
they have different functional groups attached to the rings of their carbon skeletons
What is the difference between an aldehyde and ketone?
aldehydes are on the end of the skeletons and ketones aren’t
What does a carboxyl group have acidic properties?
hydrogen becomes disassociated so that there are hydrogen ions.
Why could life be based on silicon?
silicon has a valance of four like carbon does.
Isomers
compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structures and hence two different properties