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64 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Beaver Wars
A series of violent disputes between 1640s and 1680s. They were fought between the Iroquois and French and other neighbors.

- Enlarged Iroqouis territory
- Destroyed several tribes
House of Bugesses
First organized in 1619 when the Virginia Company prompted the colonial governer to hold elections for representatives called "burgesses".

It was the legislature of colonial Virginia.

*first institution of representative government in the English colonies.
Indentured Servants
3/4 of English immigrants came as indentured servants. They were contracted to serve a master for a certain period of time.
Followers of John Calvin that wanted to purify and reform the English church. They had an intellectual attitude toward religion.

*Led the settlement of Massachussetts Bay Colony
The settlers of Plymouth colony.Viewed themselves as spiritual wanderers. They were non-conormists, like the Puritans. However, UNLIKE the Puritans they were separatists.
Believed the English Church was too corrupt to be reformed and thought they had to "separate' from it in order to sve their souls. They formed their own independent congregations. In 1620, a group of them settled in Massachussetts Bay and named their colony Plymouth.
Propriety colony
Was created when an English monarch granted a huge tract of land to an individual or group of individuals. Proprietors were owners of the land and appointed all of the civil officers.

Example: Maryland (it was the first one created)
Members of the society of friends, a radical religious group that arose in the seventeenth century.

They rejected all forms of theology - and focused instead on the holy spirit that dwelt within them.

William Penn was a prominent Quaker who founded the propriety colony of Pennsylvania as a safe haven for them.
Pequot War
1637- a conflict between english settlers and the Pequot indians, over control of land in Eastern Conneticut.
*40 years of peace afterward
Bacon's Rebellion
Nathaniel Bacon = a wealthy settler in Virginia, who led violent raids and murdered Indians.

In 1676, he and his followers robbed and burned the capital of jamestown. He grew ill and died shortly after but the rebellion dramatically changed Virginia.

- Removed the Indians from the colony
- Ended aristocratic rule in the colony
- Caused colonial authorities to favor armed expansion into Indian territory
- Increased planters' fear of disorder among former indentured servants and led to the acceleration of slave labor
King Philip's War
Conflict: English Vs. Pokanokets and Nargagansetts

Began when Plymouth magistrates arrested three Pokanoket men for the murder of Christian Indian. The Pokanokets were led by Maetacom (aka King Philip). It was one of the most destructive wars in American history.

*English won the right to expand further and rule the natives
Virginia Company
A group of investors from London, England who sent ships and one hundred men to Chesapeake Bay in 1607. The settlers built a fort that they named Jamestown. This was the first permenant English colony in America.

*Settlers had a conflict with Indian Powhattan-ended with peace treaty that included the marriage of Pocahantas and John Rolfe.

*Starting a colony required a large investment and the Virginia Company split the cost between a large group of people. By providing a financial solution, the Virginia Company made it possible for many English colonies to be founded.
Mayflower Compact
Soon after the Mayflower arrived in Massachussetts Bay, the hired men began to complain about Pilgrim authority. In order to reassure them, William Bradford drafted an agreement that stated that the male members of the expedition did "covenant and combine [themselves] together into a civil body politic". This agreement is known as the _________ _______, and was the FIRST DOCUMENT OF SELF-GOVERNMENT in America.
Massachussetts Bay Company
Puritans in England in the late 1620s believed the only way to protect their congregations was to emigrate.

In 1629, a royal charter was granted to a group of wealthy Puritans who called their endeavor the ______________ ___ _______. 200 settler were led by John Winthrop and hoped to estabish a New England model of reform for old England in their settlement called Salem.

The company later transformed into a Civil Government. It provided the origins for democratic suffrage and the bicameral divisionof leislative authority in America.
Great Migration
(AKA: The Puritan Migration)
From 1629-1643, about 20,000 people relocated to Massachussetts,

*The people that emigrated formed countless towns and populated a huge section of New England.
Covnant Chain
After Kin Philip's War, a series of negotiations were conducted in Albany in 1677.

A result of these conferences, was the alliance of the Iroquois Confederacy and the colony of New York.

*New York was trying to be in an economically and politically dominant position over the other colonies.
Culpeper's Rebellion
1677-backcounty men in North Carolina overthrew the established government.

Led by John Culpeper, the rebels imprisoned officials and exercised all government power for two years.

After 2 years, they were suppressed by English authorities.

- Colonial authorities began to favor armed expansion into Indian territory
-Planters' fear of disorder among former indentured servants caused the acceleration of the transition to slave labor
King William's War
From 1689 to 1697, conflicts occurred between the English and the French.

These conflicts were part of a larger conflict between England in France known as the League of Augsburg. In the English colonies it was known as ____ ________ ___. The war was ended by the inconclusive Treaty of Ryswick.

*English increased central control over all colonies.
A partcipant in the slave trade.

by 1698 the slave trade in England was open to independent merchants, this caused a lot of competition and the number of slaves shipped to Nroth America skyrocketed.
Middle Passage
In the 18th century, English sailors began calling the voyage of the slave ships the "______ _______". It was the voyage of the slave ships in the middle part of a trading triange from England to Africa to America and bcak to England.
The colonial belif that lower peoples (like slaves and savages) experience mental evolution when they imitate "civilized" higher people.

Traces of African culture remained in slave society, and affected Southern whites as well. They shared a common culture with the African Americans around them, and even believd in herb doctors and slave conjurers.
Slave Codes
A series of laws passed mainly in the Southern colonies in the late 17th and 18th centuries to defend the status of slaves and codify the denial of basic civil rights to them.
To ensure that European countries benefitted economically from their colonies.

An economic system where the government intervenes in the economy to increase national wealth,
Enumerated Goods
Items produced in the colonies that could only be shipped from the colony of origin to specified locations.
Salutary Neglect
the term "________ _______" arises from a speech given by Edmund Burke.

It was the long-standing British policy of strict enforcement of parliamentary laws that were meant to keep the American colonies obedient to Great Britian.

*Large contibuting factor to the American Revolution!!!
Royal African Company
Chartered in 1672. It was a slave-trading monopoly based in London and led by James, Duke of York.

Profitted those who controlled London.
Native of New England. The British used it as a term to refer to an American from any area.
Tobacco Colonies
Included: Maryland, North Carolina, and Virginia.

Produced tobacco

Made slave-holding much more widespread.
French Louisiana
Colony founded by the French in early 18th century.

Plantations: Indigo and tobacco

By the end of the 18th century the colony had become an important slave society.
Jumping the Broomstick
Slaves in North America maintained some of their customs.

One of these customs was for a couple to jump over a broomstick together. This declared their marriage to the rest of the community.
A colonial emigrant from Europe to North America who paid for their voyage by serving as an indentured servant.
Deerfield Massacre
Took place during Queen Anne's War, on February 29, 1704 in Deerfield Massachussetts.

French and Indian forces attacked the Enlgish Puritan settlement. Led by Jean-Baptiste Hertl de Rouville, they kille 50 residents and took over a hundred captives.
New Spain
Viceroyalty, which was the most prosperous European colony in North America in the mid-18th century.

The capital, Mexico City was the most sophisticated city in the Western hemisphere.

Jesuits who lived there intorduced cattle herding, which bcame the main economic activity.
A grant to a Spanish settler of, a certain number of Indian subjects, who would pay him tributes in goods and labor.

Settlers that were given this trusteeship exploited the indigenous Indians.

It was essential to the Spanish government sustaining their control over North, Central and South America.
Freedom Dues
Were given to an indentured servant when their indenture ended.

In many cases they included: a section of land, farming tools and seeds... so they could begin a new life.
Half-Way Covenant
Was created to manage the conlfict that arose regarding Puritan churches requirement of a baptism.

It was an agreement made in 1662, which stated members' children who had not experienced Baptism themselves could join as half-way members, and were restricted only from participation in communion.

*didn't resolve any of the conflicts
New Lights
During the Great Awakening (mid 18th century), there were open conflicts between Presbyterians.

In some areas the church divided into seperate organizations.

In New England one of these organizations was known as the ___ ______.

- were against arminianism
- wanted a revival of Calvinism
- believed in the importance of an emotional ans personal religious experience
Albany Conference
Took place in Albany, New York in 1754. It was convened by the British Board of Trade.

Wanted the colonies to consider collective response with New France and the Indians.
Intolerable Acts
Acts that repressed colonists in 1774

-Boston Port Bill
-Massachusetts Government Act
-Administration of Justice Act
-Quartering Act
-the Quebec Act
French and Indian War
Also known as the 7 Years War (1754-1763). There were 3 major zones of conflict: Acadia, the border between New France and New York, and the area along the Ohio River.

*Was NOT between the French and the Indians....It was between Britain and France.

Britain won.
Treaty of Paris
Signed in 1763.

France lost all land possessions and gave up territorial claims East of the Mississippi River to Great Britain except for New Orleans.
Proclamation of 173
Declared a boundary using the Appalachian Mountains for Western expansion.
John Peter Zenger and his trial
John Peter Zenger was an editor of a newspaper and printed anti-government articles. He was arrested in 1735.
Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania
A response to the Revenue Acts.

was a series of articles by John Dickenson.
Boston Massacre
Took place in 1770. Snowballs and stones were thrown at a Captain and 7 soldiers. The soldiers fired their muskets at the mob of people.

It showed the deteriorating relationship between the colonies and Britain.
Tar and Feather
– Protested the taxes made on tea. Anyone found importing tea had tar and feathers poured/thrown on them as a form of humiliation for becoming “traitors” to the colonies.
Sugar Act
Created in 1764.

It suppressed smuggling of sugar by only allowing a certain amount per person
Stamp Act
In 1765, The British wanted to raise profits through a stamp tax on printed matter.

This tax was strongly opposed by the colonists, whose representatives had not been consulted.

Colonists refused to use the stamps, and mobs frightened stamp agents.

Later on, the Stamp Act Congress, with representatives from nine colonies, met to petition Parliament to repeal the act.
Declaration Act
Created in1766, it stated that the British Parliament's taxing authority was the same in America as in Great Britain.

It asserted its complete authority to make binding laws on the American colonies.

This event focused attention on the unresolved question of Parliament's relationship to a growing empire.
Non-importation Movement
Took place in October of 1767.

British products were boycotted.

Virginia House of Burgesses banned the importation of goods from the Townshend Revenue Acts.
Townsend Revenue Acts
Took place in 1767.

Placed import laws on:

*It was created in hope of improving debt.
Coercive Acts
Passed to punish Massachusetts and strengthen British control.

It got rid of self-rule in communities in the Massachusetts colony
Quebec Act
Created a centralized government in Canada.
Declaration of Independence
It was originally drafted on June 7, 1776.

It committed treason against the King of England.

It was officially approved by the colonies on July 4th, 1776.
First and Second continental Congress
The first continental congress was held in 1774 in Philadelphia.

Representatives that were chosen by the people of each colony debated the Declaration and Resolves.

The second continental congress was held in 1775 by elected delegates.

It resolved to put colonies in a state of defense.

It also created the Continental Army. George Washington was elected chief of all Continental forces.
Battle on Bunker Hill
Took place on June 17, 1775.

British ships fired on American positions.

It was an extremely bloody batter that ended all possibilities of reconciliation between the colonies and Britain.
The Toleration Act
When the Puritans came to North America, they wanted to establish their own religious society, which had absolutely no toleration for other religions.

In 1661, King Charles II ordered a stop to religious persecution in Massachusetts.

By 1689, parliament had passed the Toleration Act, which ordered a stop to this persecution.

At first the Puritans resisted the act, but after being under pressure from English authorities, Massachusetts and Connecticut began to allow other protestant denominations to meet openly in 1700. By the 1730’s there were Anglican, Baptist, and Presbyterian congregations in many New England towns.
William Penn
William Penn, a prominent Quaker, founded the propriety colony of Pennsylvania as a religious safe haven on March 4, 1681.

He was granted this land from King Charles II of England because Charles had borrowed a lot of money from Penn's father, so he settled the debt by granting Penn a large area west and south of New Jersey.

In Pennsylvania, William Penn granted religious freedom, among other liberties.
The British colonies differed because of increasing ethnic diversity, economic growth, social tensions and self-government.

New ideas and writings associated with the enlightenment came to the colonies with European immigrants.

The enlightenment was an intellectual movement that stressed the importance of reason and the existence of discoverable natural laws. Enlightenment writers emphasized rationality, harmony, and order- which contrasted with religious beliefs of the vast mysteries of god and nature, and the certainty of human failure and disorder. Enlightenment thinkers included; Rene Descartes, Isaac Newton, and John Locke. These new ideas changed colonial life.

The Enlightenment stimulated the growth of the economy in the British colonies and the development of a more sophisticated culture.
Great Awakening
The Great Awakening was a North American religious revival in the middle of the eighteenth century.

Historians consider it to be an American version of the second phase of the Protestant Reformation.

There were changes in religion, such as new emphasis on piety and purity. Colonial people who were undergoing social stresses of the era found relief in religious enthusiasm brought by the Great Awakening
Johnathan Edwards
He was a reverend in Northampton Massachusetts.

He challenged the traditional rationalist approach to religion in the 1730’s. During this time, people had become more interested in becoming wealthy, and less passionate about religion.

Edwards started a movement by preaching to young people in an emotional style which emphasized the importance, and power of a personal religious experience.

Religious enthusiasm swept through the community, and church membership began to increase.
George Whitfield
He was an evangelical Anglican preacher from England who toured the colonies in the late 1730’s and 1740’s.

In his sermons, he began by chastising his audience, but ended with the hope that god would be responsive for their desire of salvation.

He had a powerful impact on his listeners and helped spark the Great Awakening.
Cotton Mather
He was a Puritan minister during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, who was a defender of the old order.

Although he was considered an intellectual, he wrote a book supporting the existence of witches.

On the other hand, he was also a member of the Royal Society, an early supporter of vaccination against smallpox, and a defender of the Copernican sun-centered model of the universe.

Through his books and pamphlets, he helped to introduce ideas of the enlightenment to American colonists.
During the eighteenth century, as the enlightenment was taking place, there was a decline in religious devotion. An increasing number of Congregationalists began to question their faith in predestination.

Predestination is a Calvinist belief that god has predestined certain individuals to be saved and others to be damned.

Instead, many Puritans turned to the belief known as Arminianism, which stated that god had given people the freedom to choose salvation by developing faith and doing good deeds.

This belief was in harmony with the enlightenment outlook that people were not helpless pawns, but rational beings that could control their own destinies.