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34 Cards in this Set

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Autonomic nervous system coordinates bodily functions to: (2)
Autonomic nervous system coordinates bodily functions to: (2) ensure
1) normal homeostasis
2) adaptive responses to stress
Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS)
In posprandial state, vegetative functions dominated by PNS
HR:
BP:
GI:
Blood Volume Where?:
Conditions promoted by:
Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS)
In posprandial state, vegetative functions dominated by PNS
HR: slow and regular
BP: normal
GI: motor and secretory activities high, extracting nutrients
Blood Volume Where?: major portion occupies dilated visceral vascular bed
Conditions promoted by: PNS action and quiescence of SNS
Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS)
Life-threatening emergency
PHysiological priorties shift to:
GI:
Heart:
Vascular:
Liver:
Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS)
Life-threatening emergency
PHysiological priorties shift to:
GI: decreased digestion, motility and secretion
Heart: increased HR and cardiac contractility
Vascular: vasoconstriction
Liver: gepatic glycogenolysis
Anatomical location of SNS
Thoracolumbar
Anatomical location of PNS
Craniosacral
3 components of nervous system:
3 components of nervous system:
SNS, PNS
enteric (gut)
Receptor defn:
Receptor defn:
component of a cell or organism that interacts with a drug (neurotransmittter) and initiates a chain of biochemical events (pharmacological effects).
Principal adrenoceptor types:
Principal adrenoceptor types:
Alpha and Beta
PNS primarily subserved by ______ receptors
PNS primarily subserved by muscarinic receptors
Ganglionic transmission is mediated by _________ receptors.
Ganglionic transmission is mediated by nicotinic receptors.
Cholinergic Fibers:
Cholinergic Fibers: Nerve fibers that synthesize and release acetylcholine (Ach) (Preganglionic and postganglionic)
Adrenergic Fibers:
Adrenergic Fibers: Nerve fibers that synthesize and release norepinephrine. (Postganglionic only)
NANC:
NANC: nonadrenergic, noncholinergic e.g. NO
Parasympathetic ouflow has what types of fibers?
Parasympathetic ouflow has what types of fibers?
Only Cholinergic
Sympathetic outflow has what type of fibers?
Sympathetic outflow has what type of fibers?
Cholinergic and Adrenergic
Intermural ganglia are located:
Intermural ganglia are located:
within target organ
Noradrenergic Junction Regulation points (sympathetic, postganglionic)(6):
Noradrenergic Junction Regulation points (6):
1) Synthesis: - by Trysine Hydroxylase
2) Storage: - by Resperine
3) Release: - by guanethidine
4) Bind receptor: (alpha and beta)
5) Diffuse: - by MAO
6) Uptake
-autoregulation by NE
-heteroregulation
Biosynthetic Pathway of Catecholamines:
Biosynthetic Pathway of Catecholamines:
Tyrosine -->
Dopa -->
Dopamine --> dopamine beta-hydroxylase
Norepinephrine --> PNMT
Epinephrine
3 Primary endogenous catecholamines
3 Primary endogenous catecholamines:
1) Dopamine
2) Norepinephrine
3) Epinephrine
Cholinergic Junction regulation points (parasympathetic, postganglionc) (6)
Cholinergic Junction regulation points (parasympathetic, postganglionc) (6)
1) Synthesize: - Hemicholiniums
2) Storage: - vesamicol
3) Release: (under voltage dependent process) - Botulinum toxin
4) Bind receptor: (muscarninic or nicotinic)
5) Effect: metabolized to Acetylcholinesteristase, which inhibits Ach --> dec Ach []
6) Uptake
-autoregulation by Ach
-heteroregulation
Key NANC neurotransmitter:
Key NANC neurotransmitter:
NO
Biosynthetic Pathway for NO:
Biosynthetic Pathway for NO:
NO Synthhase catalyzes in Endothelium:
O2 + L-Arginine --> L-Citrulline + NO
Outiside endothelial cell regulation:
1) Agonist binds receptor on surface to activate
2) L-NAME, L-NAMA diffuse through to inhibit
Inside endothelial cell regulation:
1) Ca2+/CaM activates
NO moves to effector cell to activate Guanylyl Cyclace to convert GTP to cGMP inhibiting PLC -->
1) VSM --> relaxation
2) Platelets --> Anti-aggregation
Agonist drugs:
Agonist drugs: bind to and activate the receptor in some fashion.
Antagonist drugs:
Antagonist drugs: by binding to a receptor, prevent binding by other molecules.
Alpha 1 receptors
Fiber type:
Agonists:
Antagonists:
Tissue:
Responses:
Subtypes:
Alpha 1 receptors
Fiber type: adrenergic
Agonists: Epi=NE>>Isoproterenol
Antagonists: Prazosin
Tissue: Vascular smooth muscle, genitourinary smooth muscle, Liver
Responses: Contraction of smooth muscle, glycogenolyss, gluconeogenesis
Subtypes: A,B,D
Alpha 2 receptors
Fiber type:
Agonists:
Antagonists:
Tissue:
Responses:
Subtypes:
Alpha 2 receptors
Fiber type: adrenergic
Agonists: Epi=NE>>Isoproterenol
Antagonists: Yohimbine
Tissue: Presynaptic nerve terminals, vascular smooth muscle, Pancreatic islets
Responses: Decreased release of NE, contraction of smooth muscle, decreased insulin release
Subtypes: A, B, C
Beta 1 receptors
Fiber type:
Agonists:
Antagonists:
Tissue:
Responses:
Subtypes:
Beta 1 receptors
Fiber type: adrenergic
Agonists: Isoproternol>Epi=NE
Antagonists: Metropolol
Tissue: Heart, Juxtaglomerular cells
Responses: Increased force and rate of contraction and AV nodal conduction velocity. Kidney: increased renin secretion
Subtypes:
Beta 2 receptors
Fiber type:
Agonists:
Antagonists:
Tissue:
Responses:
Subtypes:
Beta 2 receptors
Fiber type: adrenergic
Agonists: Iso>Epi>>NE
Antagonists: ICI 118551
Tissue: Smooth muscle (vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, genitourinary), Liver
Responses: Relaxation (smooth muscle), glycogeneolysis (Liver)
Subtypes:
Beta 3 receptors
Fiber:
Agonists:
Antagonists:
Tissue:
Response:
Note:
Beta 3 receptors
Fiber: adrenergic
Agonists: ISO=NE>Epi
Antagonists: ICI 118551
Tissue: Adipose tissue
Response: Lipolysis
Note: Currently no specific B3 receptor. This is significant because increase in obesity and diabetes
Nicotinic Muscle Receptor
Fiber:
Agonists:
Antagonists:
Tissue:
Response:
Nicotinic Muscle Receptor
Fiber: Cholinergic
Agonists: Ach
Antagonists: Tubocurarine
Tissue: Neuromuscular Junction
Response: Endplate depolarization, skeletal muscle contraction
Nicotinic Neural Receptor
Fiber:
Agonists:
Antagonists:
Tissue:
Response:
Nicotinic Neural Receptor
Fiber: Cholinergic
Agonists: Ach
Antagonists: Trimethaphan
Tissue: Autonomic ganglia, adrenal medulla, CNS
Response: Depolarization (ganglia), firing of postganglionic neurons, secretion of catecholamines (adrenal)
Muscarinic M1 Receptors
Fiber:
Agonists:
Antagonists:
Tissue:
Response:
Muscarinic M1 Receptors
Fiber: cholinergic
Agonists: Ach
Antagonists: Atropine
Tissue: Autonomic ganglia, CNS
Response: Depolarization (ganglia), undefined (CNS)
Muscarinic M2 Receptors
Fiber:
Agonists:
Antagonists:
Tissue:
Response:
Muscarinic M2 Receptors
Fiber: Cholinergic
Agonists: Ach
Antagonists: Atropine
Tissue: Hear (SA node, Atrium, AV node, Ventricle)
Response: Hyperpolarization (SA node), decrease conduction velocity, decrease contractile force.
Muscarinic M3 Receptors
Fiber:
Agonists:
Antagonists:
Tissue:
Response:
Muscarinic M3 Receptors
Fiber: Cholinergic
Agonists: Ach
Antagonists: Atropine
Tissue: Smooth muscle, secretory glands
Response: blood vessels relax, increased secretion