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44 Cards in this Set

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Intervertebral Discs
pads of flexible fibrocartilage that are in between vertebrae,
Allow flexibility
Describe the 12 pairs of discs
True fibs-first 7 pairs, attached directly to sternum by costal cartlages.
False-next 5 pair, no sternal
Floating- last 2 false pairs
Calcaneus
sheelbone
Sprain
Ligaments or tendons reinforcing a joint are damaged by excessive stretching, torn away
Rheumatoid arthritis
onset 40-50 years, 3x as many women as men are effected, autoimmune, body attempts to destroy own tissue
Gouty arthritis
accumulation of uric acid, a norm waste product of nucleac acid metabolism, deposited in the joint
Osteoporosis
affects 1/2 of all women over 65 years, and aprox 20% of men over 70. Risk factors: diet low in Calcium and protein, lack of vit D, smoking insuff WB exercise
4 functions of muscles
1.produce movement
2.maintain posture
3. stabilizes joints
4. generates heat
Skeletal muscle
striated, voluntary, can contract rapidly with great force, tiers easily and must rest after short periods of activity
Endomysium
delicate connective tissue that encloses each muscle fiber
Perimysium
Coarse fibrous membrane enclose several sheathed muscle fibers called fasicle
Fasicicle
Several sheathed muscle fibers (that are wrapped within perimysium)
Aponeuroses
attach muscle indirectly to bones, cartilages or connective tissue
Cardiac muscle
Only found in heart
STRIATED, INVOLUNTARY, cells joined by special junctions called intercalated discs
Smooth muscle
NON STRIATED, INVOLUNTARY, found in organs (VISCERAL)
Sacromeres
Tiny contractile units that make chains (myofibrils), produce banding pattern, aligned end to end
Structure of Smooth muscle
Spindle shaped, single nucleus, most often 2 layered one running circularly, and other longitudinally
Graded Responses
Produced 2 ways: TEMPORAL SUMMATION-changing the frequency of muscle stim, or SPATIAL SUMMATION-changing the # of muscle cells being stimulated
Graded response : FUSED
AKA complete- No evidence of relaxation in muscles, smooth movements
Muscle twitch
incomplete graded response, result of nervous system problems, nerve impulses delivered to muscle at a rapid rate
Isotonic vs Isometric
Isotonic- involves shortening of muscles
Isometric contractions-muscles do not shorten
Muscular dystrophy
Most common (Duchenne's) in males, dx'd 2-6yrs, most in w/c by 12 yrs, and dont live beond adulthood
Myastenia gravis
affects muscles in adulthood, drooling of upper eyelids, difficulty swallowing and talking, gen weakness and fatigue
Hamstring Group
bicepts femoris
semimembranosus
semitendinosus
The head of the humerus articulates with the...
glenoid cavity
Muscle tissue have what properties?
excitability,
extensibility
contractibility
Spinal nerves vs cranial nerves
Spinal- carry impulses to and from the spinal cord
Cranial- carry impulses to and from the brain
Bell-Magendie Law
Info from the PNS enters the spinal cord via it's dorsal surface, and exits via ventral spinal cord
Sensory nerves vs motor nerves
sensory- afferent
motor- efferent
Within a neuron, the info travels in which direction?
Dendrite to Cell Body to Axon
Neuroglia
Supporting cells in the CNS are lumped together
Nodes of Ranvier
Gaps formed d/t Schwann cells wrapped around axons
Saltatory Conduction
"to dance" Myelinated neurons carry impulses this way.
Tracts vs Nerves
CNS-tracts
PNS-nerves
Ganglia
small collection of cell bodies
Nuclei
Clusters of cell bodies that are found in the CNS
White matter vs Gray
White- highly mylenated, PNS
Gray- unmylenated, cell
bodies, CNS
Polarized
fewer positive ions sitting on the inner face of the neuron's plasma membrane than there are on their outer face of tissue
Depolarized
inward rush of sodium ions change polarity of the neuron's membrane at that site
Repolarixation/hyperpolarize
outflow of positive ions from the cell restores the electrical conditions at the mem to the polarized, or resting state
Somatic refleses
example- pullin hand away from hot pan
Autonomic reflexes
regulates activitie of smooth muscles, heart and glands
Reflex Arc
Rapid, predictable and involuntary response to stimuli, occurs over neural pathways called reflex arc, CNS and PNS
Broca's Area
Found at base of pre central gyrus, ability to speak and say words properly