• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/49

Click to flip

49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which type of RXN is synthesis, combines simple molecules, endergonic, consumes energy? Which is the opposite?
Anabolism. Catabolism.
Food is used for what 3 functions?
Energy, build (growth/repair), storage
Which metabolic RXN (catabolic vs anabolic) predominates in a cell?
There's a balance b/w them. They happen in different cell compartments at same time.
How efficient is the metabolism in each direction (anabolic vs catabolic) & in total?
65% each direction. 40% total.
In reduction/oxidation RXNs, which loses/gains electrons? Which releases/absorbs energy? What substance transports the electrons from one RXN to the other?
Oxidation - lose electron, releases energy. Reduction - gains electron, absorbs energy. Coenzymes (derived from vitamin B) transport.
In redox RXNs, only loose electrons w/ (high/low) energy may be lost.
High
When pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid/acetyl co-A, which of these is reduction vs oxidation?
Reduction - lactic acid. Oxidation/decarboxylation - pyruvic acid.
Why are carbs so important?
Major source of energy for most tissues & only source for CNS.
What is the optimal blood glucose level?
180 mg / 100 ml
What % of carbs is converted to glucose vs fructose/galactose? What eventually happens to fructose/galactose?
80% convert to glucose. 20% convert to fructose/galactose - most of these 2 will convert to glucose by hepatocytes.
What are 4 uses of glucose?
Energy production, convert proteins, glycogenesis, lipogenesis.
What is the max amount of glycogen stored in the body at a time? Glycogenesis occurs in what 2 areas & at what ratio?
500 g. Hepatocytes (1/4), mm tissue (3/4).
What does lipogenesis produce? What cells help w/ lipogenesis initially? Where does the product get stored?
Triglycerides. Hepatocytes help. Adipocytes store.
Process of producing glucose from non-glucose material is called ___.
Gluconeogenesis
What 3 substances from the blood are deposited into adipocytes to make glycerol?
Chylomicrons, glucose, VLDL
What 2 substances combine to make triglycerides in adipocytes?
Glycerol & free fatty acids (from liver)
What are the steps of glucose movt into cell?
Glucose binds to gluT, gluT changes shape & lets glucose into cytosol, glucose binds to phosphate group (w/ help of kinase) & becomes glucose 6-phosphate. It is now trapped & doesn't affect concentration gradient.
What hormone increases the # of gluT (integral transfer protein)?
Insulin
What are the 4 parts of glucose catabolism? Which are anaerobic vs aerobic?
Glycolysis (anaerobic), formation of acetyl co-A (aerobic), krebs cycle (aerobic), electron transport chain (aerobic).
Describe steps of glycolysis.
See notes p9
Where does glycolysis, kreb cycle & electron transport chain occur in the cell?
Glycolysis - cytosol. Kreb cycle - matrix mitochondria. ETC - intermembranous space mitochondria.
During glycolysis, how is G3P vs DHP used?
G3P used right away for pyruvic acid. DHP stored in cell.
In glycolysis, what are the net products of ATP, NADH, & H per glucose? Per pyruvic acid?
Glucose - 2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 H. Pyruvic acid - 4 ATP, 4 NADH, 4 H.
Which cell in human body can only use the anaerobic phase (glycolysis)?
RBCs
Draw diagram of kreb cycle.
See notes
What are the byproducts of the kreb cycle per pyruvic acid?
11 ATPS (coenzymes). 1 ATP directly. 2 CO2. 7 H.
Can the inner or outer membrane of mitochondria perform electron transport chain RXNs?
Inner membrane
Review electron transport chain.
See notes p19
Electron transport chain is also called ___.
Chemiosmosis
How many ATPs are produced per glucose in an entire cycle of cellular respiration/glucose catabolism?
38 ATPs
A lipoprotein has a (hydrophobic/hydrophilic) sphere w/ (hydrophobic/hydrophilic) core.
Hydrophilic. Hydrophobic.
The mantle (outside) of a lipoprotein is made of what 3 substances? The core is made of what 2 substances?
Outside - apoproteins, phospholipids, cholesterol. Inside - triglycerides, cholesterol ester.
Lipoproteins are grouped based on ___, which is the ratio b/w proteins & lipids. The more apoproteins, the (higher/lower) the density. What are the 4 groups?
Density. Higher. Chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, HDL
Chylomicrons from ___ & VLDL from ___ are deposited together in ___ for storage. When released for use in target cells, it is broken down into ___.
Small intestine. Liver. Adipocyte. LDL.
Which type of lipoprotein is considered bad cholesterol b/c if in excess it deposits in ___, turns into fibrosis & results in arteriosclerosis?
Arteries. LDL.
Which type of lipoprotein is considered good cholesterol b/c it removes excess cholesterol from blood/cells & transports back to the ___?
Liver. HDL.
Triglycerides stored in adipocytes can be broken down into glycerol & fatty acids in a process called ___. What is the pathway for each?
Lypolysis. Glycerol is converted to G3P, then pyruvic acid to acetyl co-A to kreb cycle. If energy is not needed, G3P converts to glucose. Fatty acids go through beta oxidation to become acetyl co-A then enters kreb cycle.
What is the series of steps called when fatty acids are converted to acetyl co-A? What is the byproduct that makes this not an ideal pathway?
Beta oxidation. Acetone.
Process where 2 molecules of acetyl co-A from fatty acid catabolism (in hepatocytes) is converted to ketones, which includes acetone.
Ketogenesis
What 2 factors can increase the rate of beta oxidation? What results from the increased rate?
Lack of carbs (diet/fasting) or lack of insulin (diabetes). Increased rate = more ketones = acidosis (a sign is bad breath - decayed apple).
Amino acids from small intestine can be converted into what 3 substances that then convert to ___ & enter the kreb cycle?
Fatty acids, glucose, ketones. Acetyl co-A.
What needs to happen to amino acids before they can enter the kreb cycle? What is the process called & what is the pathway that follows? Where does this occur?
Amino group must be removed first - deamination. Becomes ammonia (very toxic) then urea (less toxic). This occurs in hepatocytes. Then urea is excreted in urine via kidneys.
The extra amount of glucose can be stored in what 2 forms?
Glycogen, triglyceride
How is glucose stored shortly after a meal in 3 areas of the body?
Liver stores glucose as glycogen, fatty acid, G3P. Fatty acids/G3P converted to triglyceride - most packaged as VLDLs to adipocytes. Also stored as glycogen in mm.
How are amino acids used shortly after a meal?
Amino acids are deaminated in liver and converted to proteins & ketones - used to make fatty acids which can then be stored as triglyceride. Mm also use amino acids (contractile protein).
How is protein (fasting/diet) & glycogen broken down in mm tissue for use?
Protein is broken into amino acids, then enters liver & converted to ketones, then glucose, then enters blood. Glycogen becomes G3P, then pyruvic acid, then either lactic acid or enters kreb cycle.
How are triglycerides broken down for use and transport in the blood?
Lypolysis - broken into fatty acid, glycerol. Then goes to liver & broken into ketone, glucose respectively. Both enter blood.
How is glycogen broken down for use? What is process called & where does it happen?
Glycogen broken down into glucose then enters blood. Glycogenolysis occurs in liver.
No (protein/carb/fat) is stored in liver.
Protein