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52 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
1) Bicarbonate plays what role in digestive process?
Bicarb=>pancreas, inactivates pepsin from ST for SI enzymes
1) Protein and digestion?
ST->pepsin + protein =>peptides (small amino acids)
1) ST Digestive substances
Pepsinogen =>pepsin, HCI +=>pepsinogen =>pepsin, HCI=softens connective meat tissue, pepsin= digests proteins
1) Which organ has endo and exocrine function?
pancreas
1) 90% of absorption happens where?
SI
1) Vit K is produced where?
LI
1) Vit B complex produced where?
LI
1) What part of GI has only absorption functions?
LI
Function of Liver?
Manufacture bile, carb metabolism, protein metabolism, lipid metabolism, detox, stores vits, activates Vit D, excretes bilirubin
1) Peptic ulcer disease?
Excess gastric acid, sometimes caused by infection or medication
1) Which Vits are fat soluble?
A,D,E,K
1) Which Vits are water soluble?
B’s and C
1) Which lipoprotein helps prevent arthsclerosis?
HDL’s
1) Which produces more Kcals? Fat, protein, carbs, how much each?
4protein, 4 carb, 9 fat
1) Which Vits are antioxidant?
ACE- A, C, and E
1) BMR can help diagnose which disease?
hyperthyroidism
Most abundant electrolyte within cells
potassium
Most abundant electrolyte outside cells
sodium
1) Transmission of Hepatitis: A, B, C, D, E
A-fecal/oral
B- parenteral transmission (IV, sexual fluid transmission, etc)
C-parenteral
D- co-infection of parenteral of B and C
E-fecal/oral
ST produces what enzyme?
pepsin(pepsinogen),
gastrin
Pancreas produces what enzyme?
amalyse,
lipase,
trypsin,
chymotripsin
LV produces what enzyme?
bile
Salivary glands produces what enzyme?
amylase
B1(thiamine) ↓ causes what disease?
beriberi, polyneuritis
B3 ↓ causes what disease?
pellagra
B6 ↓ causes what disease?
dermatitis of eyes, nose and mouth
B12↓ causes what disease?
megablastic anemia
K↓ causes what disease?
delays clotting time
C↓ causes what disease?
scurvy, anemia
D↓ causes what disease?
rickets (kids) osteomalacia (adults)
E ↓ causes what disease?
Hemolytic anemia
D ↑ causes what disease?
KD stones, hypercalcemia
E ↑ causes what disease?
prolonged clotting time
1) Which hormone regulates urine volume?
ADH
Which hormone increases urine excretion?
ANP increases
Which hormone decreases urine excretion?
ADH decreases
1) Blood buffer systems are made up of what?
7 weak alkalines and acids:
Hemoglobin,
albumin,
carbonic acid,
bicarbonate,
phosphate (2 parts) and
exhalation of CO2
1) Normal arterial blood pH?
7.35-7.45
1) Failure of what renal function leads to tubular acidosis?
Dysfunction of the secretion of hydrogen
1) What renal function is related to hydrogen level?
Renal tubule secretion ->KD can reabsorb to create phosphate, part of the buffer system, or the buffer system itself-
1) Normal urine volume in 24 hrs?
1k-2k mL/24hrs
1) Function of renal tubules
Excretes certain substances into blood to help keep balanced-H+ and K+
1) Function of renal glomerulis
Water and solute filtration from blood to bowman’s capsule
Metabolic acidosis
↓ 7.35pH-overproduction of acids during metabolic process or KD aren’t excreting enough acids
Respiratory acidosis
↓ 7.35pH-resp problems that lead to too much CO2 retention
Metabolic alakosis-
↑7.45pH-from too much acid loss (vomiting, etc) or too muchalkaline substances (antacids, etc)
Respiratory alakosis-
↑7.45pH-hyperventialtion (hysteria, ) stroke patients
1) Glumeroli filtration:
a. Yes-water, glucose, uria, creatin
b. No-protein, blood
1) What is serum creatinine?
End product of protein metabolism, used as an indicator of KD functions
1) What is creatinine clearance?
Reflects the glomerular filtration rate-105mL/min for females. 125 mL/min for males
1) What disease is common in end stage renal disease and dialysis?
Anemia, hypertension metabolic acidosis, heart failure, pulmonary edema, pericariditis, plueritis
1) Be able to differentiate acidosis types-metabolic or respiratory
...???