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109 Cards in this Set

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Which of the following are part of the cranium?

Facial, Base, Vault
Vault and Base make up the cranium. Facial bone is part of the skull, but not part of the cranium.
How many bones are part of the "vault"? and what are they?
Vault, which is the upper part of the cranium consists of 8 main bones. They are 2 parietal, 2 temporal, frontal, occipital, sphenoid, and ethmoid.
What are the functions of paranasal sinuses? Name 3 functions.
1) Paranasal sinuses lighten the skull because they're air-filled. 2) add resonance to voice, 3) humidify the air.
What are the anatomical differences in the pelvis of male and female?
1) pubic arch is in an acute angle in male, obtuse in female, 2) acetabulum is larger in male, 3) obturator foramen is oval in male, triangular in female, 4)sacral promontory is smaller in female, iliac fossa is deeper in male, 5) anterior superior iliac spine is further apart in female (alas, wider hips)
What the the two bones of the forearm? Which one is medial/lateral? What holds the two bones together?
Radius (lateral) and Ulna (medial). They are held together by interosseus membrane.
What are the two bones of the legs? Which one is medial/lateral? What holds the two bones together?
Fibular (lateral) and Tibia (medial). They are held together by interosseus membrane.
Surgical neck is a part of which bone?
Humerus.
Which of the following are bones of the upper limb?

Humerus, Clavicle, Scapula, Ulna,
Metacarpal, Fibula, Phalanges
Everything except fibula.
Which of the following are bones of the lower limb?

Tarsals, Hip, Patella, Femur, Fibula, Ulna
Everything except ulna.
Which nerve and blood vessel is related to the surgical neck area of the humerus?
Axillary nerve and branch of the axillary artery.
Which nerve and blood vessel is related to the diaphysis part of the humerus?
Radial nerve and branch of the brachial artery.
Which nerve and blood vessel is related to the distal end of the humerus?
Ulna nerve and artery.
What is known as the funny bone?
Medial epicondyle of humerus.
Immovable joints are called? They're typically what kind of joint structurally?
Synarthrosis. They're typically fibrous joints containing fibrous connective tissues.
Partially movable joints are called? They're typically what kind of joint structurally?
Amphiarthrosis. They're typically cartilagenous joints containing cartilage.
Freely movable joints are called? They're typically what kind of joint structurally?
Diarthrosis. They're typically synovial joints containing synovial membrane or fluid.
Give an example of fibrous joint.
Suture.
Give an example of cartilagenous joint.
Syndesmosis.
Syndesmosis is?
Inferior tibiofibular and inferior radioulnar joint where the intervening fibrous tissue is the interosseus ligament.
What is the name of the joint between teeth and mandible and maxilla? What type of joint is this?
Gomphosis. It is a fibrous joint that allows slight movement.S
What is Synchondrosis? Give an example.
Primary cartilagenous joints. The epiphyseal plate.
What is Symphysis? Give an example.
Secondary cartilagenous joints. Intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis between the 3 pieces of sternum.
What type of joint is intervertebral disc?
Secondary cartilagenous joint. aka symphysis.
What type of joint is pubic symphysis?
Secondary cartilagenous joint. Symphysis.
What type of joint is also called the midline joint?
Symphysis, Secondary cartilagenous.
What type of joint is present between the three pieces of sternum.
Secondary cartilagenous joint. Symphysis.
What's the intervening tissue in synchondrosis?
Hyaline cartilage.
What's the intervening tissue in symphysis?
Fibrocartilage with articular surface lined by hyaline cartilage.
What type of tissue are articulating capsules made out of?
Fibrous tissue.
Which movements are possible along transverse axis?
Flexion and extension.
Which movements are possible along vertical axis?
Medial and lateral rotation.
Which movements are possible along anteroposterior axis?
Abduction and adduction.
Abduction and adduction are movements along which axis?
Anteroposterior axis.
Give some locations of plane synovial joints.
Intercarpal, intertarsal, acroclavicularGi
Name two types of uniaxial synovial joint.
Hinge joint, pivot joint.
Hinge joint is what type of synovial joint? Along which axis are movements possible?
Uniaxial synovial joint. Hinge joints allow movement along transverse axis and allows flexion and extension.
Locations of hinge joint.
Elbow, interphalangeal joint. Ankle is a modified hinge joint.
What are the two parts of distal end of humerus anterior and posterior side?
Anterior side:
Lateral/Radial side: Capitulum.
Medial/Ulna side: Trochlea.
Coronoid fossa
Medial/lateral epicondyle
Posterior side: Olecranon fossa, trochlea, medial/lateral epicondyle
What is the part of the humerus that is in the distal, posterior surface?
Olecranon fossa.
What are the parts of the humerus at the proximal end?
Head, greater and lesser tubercle.
Which forearm bone (radius or ulna) hooks onto the olecranon fossa of humerus?
The olecranon process of ulna
Which part of the forearm bone is the complementary part to the trochlea of humerus?
Trochlea notch of ulna.
What is the distal end of ulna?
Styloid process.
What are the parts of the proximal end of femur?
Greater and lesser trochanter, head,
What are the proximal and distal parts of tibia?
proximal end: tibial tuberosity

distal end: medial/lateral? malleolus
pelvic girdle is comprised of
The two hip bones articulating with one another.
Bony pelvis is comprised of:
The two hip bones and sacrum.
How many carpal bones are there? How many tarsal bones are there?
There are 8 carpal bones for a total of 27 hand bone.
There are 7 tarsal bones for a total of 26 foot bone.
What are the three bones of the hip bone?
Pubis, Ilium, Ischium.
What are the bones of the thigh
Femur and patella
Which forearm bones do capitulum and trochlea of humerus articulate with?
Capitulum articulates with radius. Trochlea articulates with ulna.
Which of the forearm articulates with the carpal bones?
Only the radius articulates with the carpal bones. Ulna does not.
With what bone does the sternal end of the clavicle articulate?

With what bone does the acromial end of the clavicle articulate?
Sternal end of clavicle articulates with the manubrium of sternum. Acromial end articulates with acromion of scapula.
What are the primary movements of joints?
Rotation, Abduction/Adduction, Flexion/Extension.

Circumduction is a combination of above movements.
Is the capitulum or trochlea of humerus on the same side (medial/lateral) of humerus as the greater tubercle?
Capitulum, lateral epicondyle and greater tubercle are on the lateral side of humerus. Trochlea, medial epicondyle, and the head are on the medial side of humerus.
What are the organic and inorganic components of bones?
Organic = chondroitin sulphate and collagen
Inorganic = salts of calcium
What lays down the organic and inorganic components of bones?
osteoblasts.
What remodels bones?
Osteoclasts.
What are the components of bone matrix?
collagen and ground substance
What are the two types of ossification?
Membranous and endochondral
What is another name for endochondral ossification?
Carilagenous ossification.
Skull ossifies by what type of ossification?
Membranous
Long bones ossify by what type of ossification?
epochondral.
Anterior fontanelle fuses at about ? months?
6-9 months.
How many bones in cranial bones?
22 bones.
How many bones in the facial bones?
14 bones
Are paranasal sinuses part of the vault, base of facial?
facial.
What's the correct term for "jaw bone"
Mandible.
What's the name of the nerve and blood vessels that supply the lower teeth?
Inferior alveolar nerve and blood vessels.
Nerves to the lower teeth go through which foramen?
mandibular foramen.
Which process of the mandicle articulates with the temporal bone?
Condylar process
How many vertebrae? the different parts?
33. 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacrum, 4 coccyx
Which vertebral areas are primary curvature?
Thoracic and sacral regions are concave anteriorly.
What and when do we get secondary curvature?
When child is able to hold its head, up, you get cervical curvature. When child is able to walk, you get lumbar curvature. (both convex anteriorly)
3 parts of sternum?
Manubrium, body, xiphoid process
between manubrium and body of sternum is?
manubrius sternal joint
between maubrium and xiphoid process is?
xiphisternal joint
How many pairs of ribs?
12 pairs
How many and wht types of ribs?
7 true ribs, 3 false ribs, 2 floating ribs.
which bones make up the pectoral girdle?
Clavicles and scapulas
What bones make up the upper limb/
clavicle, scapula, arm, forearm, hands
What makes up the lower limb?
Hip bones, thigh, leg, foot
How many tarsal bones?
7
How many carpal bones?
8
What shape is the obturator foramen in males and females?
male= oval
female=triangular
osteocytes are trapped ___ cells?
osteoblasts trapped in the matrix
vitamin D allows intestine to absorb what? Absence of vitamin D causes what condition?
phosphorus and calcium. causes rickets
what are the two hormones that regulate calcium absorption?
Parathormone causes calcium resorption from bones to the blood.
Calcitonin deposits calcium into bones.
Another word for freckles?
ephelides
how long before cells travel from stratum basale to the surface?
4-14 weeks.
Which layer is keratohyaline granules present?
stratum granulosum
stratum lucidum is in thick or thin skin?
thick skin only
dermis is divided into which 2 layers?
papillary and reticular
what type of tissue is papillary layer?
areolar connective tissue with capillary network.
what's the structure responsible for fingerprints?
papillary ridges
what's the nerve receptor in the papilla?
meissner's corpuscles.
what type of tissue is the reticular layer of dermis?
dense irregular connective tissue,
dense collagen fibers.
what are efferent and afferent nerves?
efferent (motor)
afferent (sensory)
inactivity of hair follicles =
alopecia
hair growth where there should be no hair growht. condition is called=
hirsutism
resting phase of hair growth
telogen
active phase of hair growht
anagen
holocrine glands?
when cells are lost with the secretion.
inactivity of hair follicles =
alopecia
hair growth where there should be no hair growht. condition is called=
hirsutism
resting phase of hair growth
telogen
active phase of hair growht
anagen
holocrine glands?
when cells are lost with the secretion.
another word for nail cuticle?
eponychium