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98 Cards in this Set

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What are the two isotopes of oxygen?
₁₆O and ₁₈O
They are two numbers apart.
Which oxygen isotope evaporates most readily?
Square root of ₂₅₆ to the O.
What is the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater is recorded in the tests of phytoplankton called?
Foraminifera or formas
It's formed.
High ₁₈O content of phytoplankton tests indicates a what seawater temperature? Cold or warm?
Cold seawater temperatures indicate what period? Glacial or interglacial?
Answer the following two blanks:

Since 700,000 years ago, major glacial periods have occurred about __________ years in the Northern Hemisphere. Prior to 700,000 years ago, major glacial periods occurred about every _____ years.
60,000 years apart.
Answer the following two blanks:

These cyclic variations are likely caused by small variations in the geometry of how the Earth orbits the Sun which are known as _________ Cycles. These cycles result in variations in _________, or the intensity of incoming solar radiation.
Answer the following three blanks:

Milankovitch Cycles are caused by variations in Earth's _________, _________, and _______.
Eccentricity, obliquity, and precession.
Answer the following blank:

_________ is the variation in the shape of the Earth's elliptical orbit around the Sun.
Answer the following blank:

_________ is the variation in the angle that the Earth's axis of rotation makes with the plane of the Earth's orbit around the sun.
_________ is the variation in the orientation of the Earth's axis of rotation with respect to the Earth's orbit.
Choose one option of each the four of the following:

Formation of ice sheets results in more/less albedo, which results in colder/warmer temperatures, which results in the growth/retreat of glaciers. This is a positive/negative feedback.
Formation = Creates
So, what happens when a formation of ice sheets are created? Use your logic!
Also, all these are going in ONE direction, as opposed to one going one direction and the others another direction, so what's the feedback?
Choose one option of each the six of the following:

During an interglacial period, sea levels rises/falls, which causes coral reefs to grow/weather, which leads to increased/decreased CO2 in the atmosphere, which leads to global warming/cooling, which causes glaciers to melt/grow. This is a positive/negative feedback.
Inter = Not; opposite of the meaning.
All are going in one direction, what's the feedback?
Explain how increases volcanism could trigger and ice age.
Volcanism ejects dust particles into the atmosphere which facilitates cloud growth. Clouds increase the Earth's albedo, thus decreasing the temperature. Volcanism also produces SO₂ which oxidizes in the upper atmosphere to produce aerosols. These aerosols reflect solar radiation, thus causing cooling.
Volcanism = Volcanic eruptions.
Dust = Clouds = Albedo Increase = SO₂ = Brr!
Explain how changes in the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) circulation could trigger an ice age.
The NADW forms when cold, salty water sinks in the North Atlantic. Warmer water from the mid and equatorial Atlantic replaces it, thus bringing warmer temperatures to land masses nearby. If that current changes (by means of fresh water from glacial melting), this warm water may no longer reach Northern Europe and Northern Canada, thus causing an ice age.
Remember that if the NADW shuts down, the northern hemisphere will get cold.
Explain how changes in solar activity (i.e. sunspots) could trigger an ice age.
Sunspots emit extra radiation towards Earth. A decrease in activity could mean a decrease in overall radiation reaching Earth and therefore lowering Earth's temperature.
Sunspots = Cold spots the sun has. And what happens when the sun becomes cooler? One word: Brr!
If there were fewer sunspots, or decreases activity for sun spots, what happens when the sun heats up?
What is Raymo hypothesis and how does it relate to the triggering of an ice age.
The Raymo hypothesis suggests that the uplift of the Himalayas is causing an excessive amount of rock weathering. This pulls CO₂ out of the atmosphere which results in cooling.
Think rock weathering and Himalayas.
Answer the following two blanks:

"Short-term" climate change occurs on the time scale of _____ to _____ of years.
Approximately 900 years apart.
Fill in the time periods during which the following events occurred and indicate if the period was one of relatively warmer or colder temperatures:

1.) Warm/Cold _______ Last Glaicial Maximum
2.) Warm/Cold _______ Older Dryas
3.) Warm/Cold _______ Younger Dryas
4.) Warm/Cold _______ Holocene Climatic Optimum (a.k.a Hypisthermal)
5.) Warm/Cold _______ Neoglacial
6.) Warm/Cold _______ Midieval Warm Period
7.) Warm/Cold _______ Little Ice Age
1.) Cold, 18,000-20,000BP
2.) Cold, 12,000-11,800BP
3.) Cold, 11,000-10,000BP
4.) Warm, 8,000-5,00BP
5.) Cold, 5000BP-Present
6.) Warm, 1150-1280AD
7.) Cold, 1400-1850AD
What is the likely cause of the Younger Dryas Event?
Shut down of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) circulation due to input of fresh water.
Younger Dryas, contrary to the name, was a cold period.
What is the likely cause of the Holocene Climatic Optimum?
Increases concentration of CO₂, or increases sunspot activity.
The Holocene Climatic Optimum was a warm period.
What is the likely cause of the Midieval Warm Period?
Milankovitch Cycles or sunspot activity.
What is the likely cause of the Little Ice Age?
Milankovitch Cycles or volcanism.
What is the largest overall reservoir for carbon?
What is the largest biomass reservoir for carbon?
Terrestrial biomass.
The combustion of natural gas, coal, and oil produce which two products?
CO₂ and H₂O
Carbon _______, W___r.
Which country emits the most CO₂?
It involves Uncle Sam.
Forests remove CO₂ from the atmosphere through what process?
This process happens on the scale of 10's/100's/1000's of years.
Deals with plants.
Sunlight + CO₂ + H₂O = O₂ + CHO (Carbohydrates)
Relatively short process.
CO₂ dissolves in ocean water to form _________. This process happens on the scale of 10's/100's/1000's of years.
Carbonic acid (H₂CO₃)
Relatively long process.
On the continents, CO₂ combines with _________ rocks resulting in a weathering reaction that removes CO₂ from the atmosphere. This process happens on the scale of 10's/100's/1000's of years.
Not too short, not too long.
The IPCC concluded that increases in CO₂, CH₄, and N₂O are due largely to _____________.
Human activity
People and its actions.
What are the two main effects of global warming on the ocean? ________________ and ________________.
What process will be the largest factor in sea level rise?
Sea level rises and Change in thermohaline circulation.
Thermal expansion of ocean water.
Models of climate change due to global warming produce absolute values/estimated ranges of temperature, sea level rise, etc
Estimated ranges.
I'm guessing....
What are 3 effects of urban sprawl?
Heat islands, diverts overland and groundwater flow, pollution.
True or False: Over 90% of the United States' energy comes from fossil fuels.
The U.S. electric industry mainly uses coal, because it's cheap and widely available everywhere.
True or False: 100% of possible energy in fossil fuels is extracted and transferred to domestic use.
I don't think so, Tim.
Place the following coal grades in the order from lowest grade to highest grade: anthracite, peat, lignite, bituminous.
(Lowest to Highest)
Peat, Lignite, Bituminous, Anthracite.
Say it: "Pleebaaa".
Place the following regions in order from lowest percentage of world coal reserves to the highest percentage: North America, South America, Europe, Africa, Northern Asia, Southeast Asia.
(Lowest to Highest)
South America, Africa, Europe, Northern Asia, North America, Southeast Asia.
When will coal reserves run out?
In approximately 200 years.
Not for a while, that's for sure.
Oil and natural gas form from the compaction and heating of ________.
Microscopic plants and bacteria in the ocean.
Oil and natural gas is formed in _________ rocks and trapped in _________ rocks.
Place the following regions in order from lowest percentage of world oil reserves to the highest percentage: North America, South America, Western Europe, Middle East, Africa, Northern Asia, Southeast Asia.
(Lowest to Highest)
Western Europe, Southeast Asia, Northern Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Middle East
Place the following regions in order from lowest percentage of world natural gas reserves to the highest percentage: North America, South America, Western Europe, Middle East, Africa, Northern Asia, Southeast Asia.
(Lowest to Highest)
Western Europe, South America, North America, Southeast Asia, Africa, Middle East, Northern Asia.
When will oil reserves run out?
Around 2045.
We're using a lot of it, that's for sure.
___________ are ice-like compounds formed from methane in a cage of frozen water.
Methane hydrates
_________ and _________ are near-surface sedimentary deposits that are saturated in organic matter.
Oil shales
Tar Sands
_________ forms when CO₂, SO₂, and NOx react with water in the atmosphere.
Acid rain.
It burns, and it rains!
It causes the limestone of that building to sizzle and ... weather!
Label the following energy sources as renewable or non-renewable:

1.) Oil and natural gas
2.) Nuclear fission
3.) Solar Power
4.) Wind Power
5.) Coal
6.) Biomass
7.) Geothermal energy
8.) Hydroelectric power
9.) Tidal power
10.) Fuel cells
1.) Non-renewable
2.) Non-renewable
3.) Renewable
4.) Renewable
5.) Non-renewable
6.) Renewable
7.) Non-renewable
8.) Renewable
9.) Renewable
10.) Renewable
6 of the 10 are renewable sources of energy.
What is the chemical formula for ozone?
What unit is the primary measurement for ozone?
Dobson Unit (DU)
The peak concentration of ozone occurs in the troposphere/stratosphere/mesosphere at about _____ km altitude.
Ozone filters infrared/ultra-violet/visible radiation coming from the sun.
Which is the most harmful?
We SEE visible light. We USE Infrared in remote controls. What about Ultra-violet rays?
"Good" ozone occurs in the troposphere/stratosphere/mesosphere.
Why is "good" ozone good?
It filters out harmful UV rays from reaching Earth's surface where it can cause health problems for humans and other organisms.
"Bad ozone occurs in the troposphere/stratosphere/mesosphere.
Why is "bad" ozone bad?
It causes health problems for plants and animals.
List the four chemical formulas of the Chapman reactions and describe what they mean in words.
O₂ + hv → O + O (hv = UV photon)
O + O₂ + M → O₃ + M
O₃ + hv → O + O₂
O + O₃ → 2O₂
Where is the ozone hole?
When does it form?
Over Antarctica.
What man-made chemical is primarily responsible for creating the ozone hole?
CFCs (chloroflurocarbons) or Freons
The ozone hole is affected/unaffected by the temperature of the stratosphere.
Warmer/colder temperatures produce more/fewer polar stratospheric clouds, which facilitate more/less ozone destruction reactions.
A region of cold air known as the _________ _________ ________ circulates over Antarctica and results the isolation of polar air from mid-latitude air.
Antarctic circumpolar vortex.
The destruction of ozone is catalyzed by which two elements? ________ and ________.
N (Nitrogen) and Cl (Chlorine)
A significant amount of chlorine in the atmosphere originates from which man-made chemical?
CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) or freons
Chemical reactions that occur in polar stratospheric clouds are homogeneous/heterogeneous because they occur on solid surfaces.
The ________ Convention, signed in 1985, called for a plan of action to reduce the growing ozone hole.
The ________ Protocol, signed in 1987, set limits on the production of CFCs and halons in an effort to reduce the destruction of the ozone.
Which man-made chemicals have replaced the use of CFCs?
HFCs (hydroflurocarbons) and HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorcarbons).
What are three factors that contributed to the successful design and signing of the Montreal Protocol?
Evolving scientific understanding of the problem, increasing public concern over the problem based on health problems, and the availability of acceptable substitutes for CFCs.
What are the 4 characteristics of life?
1.) Life forms increase exponentially.
2.) Life forms require energy.
3.) Life forms produce waste products and pollution.
4.) Life forms are versatile.
________ are primary producers that can synthesize food from inorganic substances.
________ can not synthesize food directly and rely on complex organic substances for nutrition.
Oxygenic photosynthesis uses ________, _________, and ________ to produce __________. This process is autotrophic/heterotrophic.
Solar radiation, CO₂, and H₂O.
O₂ and organic matter.
What are 4 types of heterotrophy?
Aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, fermentation, methanogenesis.
The ________ is the portion of the Earth composed of organisms.
A __________ is a group of animals that interbreed or have the potential to interbreed.
A __________ consists of all members of a single species that live in an area, while a _________ consists of two or more interacting species.
Population, community.
A __________ is a region with a characteristic plant community, while an ___________ is a community of plants, animals, fungi, microbes, and the physical environment in which they all live.
Biome, ecosystem.
What are some of the factors that can vary in a terrestrial ecosystem?
Topography, soil, atmospheric conditions, and climate.
What are some factors that can vary in an aquatic ecosystem?
Bathymetry, water chemistry, physical characteristics of the water, atmospheric conditions, and climate.
___________ is the systematic study of the number of distinct species of living organisms on the Earth, and their interaction.
The overall trend of biodiversity throughout Earth's history is that it is increasing/decreasing. However, the human impact is generally to increase/reduce biodiversity.
When did the most recent mass extinction event occur?
What are some of the explanations for this extinction event?
Pleistocene (Approximately 10,000 years ago).
Human overhunting, hyperdisease, and climate change.
True or False: Food chains are usually linear where phytoplankton are consumed only by zooplankton, and zooplankton are consumed by only one type of predator.
A ___________ is used to represent the complexities of natural ecosystems food chains.
The higher the trophic level in a food chain, the less/more the amount of energy harvested by consumption.
Remember the triangle diagram!
_________ is the predictable response of rebuilding of an ecosystem after the natural of human disturbance or destruction of that ecosystem.
What is the primary cause of modern extinctions and biodiversity loss?
Habitat loss
What are the causes of sea level rise according to the IPCC report?
Thermal expansion of ocean water, melting of glaciers and ice caps, melting of Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.
The east/west Antarctic ice sheet is at a great risk of melting due to global warming.
Wild, wild _____
What are some of the effects of increased CO₂ on ecosystems?
Plant growth may increase, amount of water required by plants may change, changes in speciation, migration of various organisms, increased ocean acidity leading to changes for marine life.
Identify 4 general policies that can be enacted to slow global warming.
Conservation, change to renewable low CO₂ emitting energy sources, switch to nuclear fission or fusion, CO₂ taxes.
The modeled change in actual continental temperature differs/remains the same across the globe, but it is generally increase/decreasing everywhere across the globe.
What are the categories of uncertainty surrounding the findings of global warming studies as described by the IPCC?
Incomplete or imperfect observations, incomplete conceptual frameworks, incomplete prescriptions of known processes, chaos, unpredictability.
Describe some of the gross predictions and problems associated with global warming.
Frequency of devastating storms will increase dramatically; sea level rise will rise over the century to approximately 0.5 meters; snow will disappear from all but the highest mountains; deserts will spread; oceans become acidic, leading to destruction of coral reefs; deadly heatwaves will become more prevalent.
________ sea level changes are changes in the heat uptakes and transfer in ocean waters.
________ sea level changes are changes in the actual volume of water due to addition of glacial melt-waters.
What are some of the ways we can plan for accelerated sea level rise?
Human response disincentives, human response incentives, allocation of natural treasure, engineering and shore modication.