• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/21

Click to flip

21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the definition of an aneurysm?
dilatation of a localised segment of an artery or vein 1.5-2 x normal diameter
What is the difference between a true and false anuerusm
True = all three layers of the arterial wall involved - most common
False - fibrous tissue as wall usually secondary to trauma, contained rupture or anastamotic breakdown
Which genetic disorders are associated with aneurysms?
Marfan's
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
Poly cystic kidney disease
What is the likelihood that a patient with an abdominal aortic aneurysm will have aneurysms elsewhere?
Very high!
Iliac artiers - 40%
Popliteal - 15%
At what diameter and above does an abdominal aortic aneurysm increase it's risk of rupture exponentially
5cm
Are AAA more common in males or females?
males - 4-6 fold
Which aneurysms are commonly bilateral?
femoral and popliteal
Most people with AAA are asymptomatic, those who are symptomatic may present with?
Rupture
Tenderness
Abdomainal/back pain
Embolisation of thrombus from within the aneurysm (blue toe syndrome)
Acute cardiac failure
What is the classic triad of symptoms seen in rupture of AAA?
severe abdominal or back pain
pulsatile abdominal mass
shock (hypotension)
The bleeding with AAA rupture has a better prognosis if it is retroperitoneal or intraperitoneal?
Retroperitoneal - bleed contained initially
When should an AAA be operated on?
Leaking or ruptured aneurysm
Symptomatic - pain, ureteric obstruction or embolism
Expanding aneurysm: enlarging at a rate of > 0.5cm in 1 year
If > 5.5 cm
What types of surgical repair of AAA are there?
Endovascular - low operative risk, renal issues (contrast, proximity to renals), techincal failures, need for re-intervention
Open repair - higher operative risk,
Complications of endoluminal graft placement
Early: immediate conversion to open repair, groin haematoma, arterial thrombosis, iliac artery rupture
Late: endoleak, severe graft kinking, migration, thrombosis, rupture of aneurysm
What are the types of endoleak?
1: problems with seal at top end
2: arise from lumbar vessels or IMA - bleeding into sac (most common)
3: joins of parts of graft can be disrupted
4: graft porous - blook leaking through material irself
What is the main cause of AAA
atherosclerosis - degenerative
Rare causes = inflammatory, trauma, CT diseases, infection
RF associated with rupture of AAA?
women
smoking
family history in multiple relatives
poorly controlled HTN
How do you manage ruptured AAA?
No imaging
Straight to OR (confirm diagnosis by laparotomy)
Crossmatch 10 units PRBCs
Start IV if possible
What % of AAAs are infrarenal?
90-98%
how do most iliac artery aneurysms present?
Most are asymptomatic but can present with local compression, thrombosis, distal embolisation of atheromatous debris, rupture
Indications for surgical management of iliac artery aneurysms?
Asymptomatic BUT > 3.5 cm
rapid increase in diameter (> 0.5cm/y)
Symptomatic
How common is it to see an isolated iliac artery aneurysm?
Not common at all
Mostly present with AAA