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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is anxiety commonly comorbid with?
1. other anxiety disorders
2. depression & mood disorders
3. externalizing disorders
4. substance abuse

(Barrett, 2000)
What are the rates of comorbidity?
91% in clinic samples and 71% in community samples (S&O)
Explain the tripartite model
Clark & Watson 1991

depression and anxiety share the same underlying construct of negative affectivity. the other dimensions:
positive affectivity = low in depression
physiological arousal = high in anxiety

can be distinguished using the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (Chorpita et al., 2000)
What instrument should you use when determining comorbidity?
the RCMAS (Reynolds & Richman, 1985) was found useful for discriminating between youth with anxiety disorders and youth with ODD/CD but not for discriminating between youth with affective and youth with anxiety disorders. That's when you should turn to the RCADS (Chorpita et al., 2000)
Talk about the impact of comorbidity on treatment
None! says Kendall et al., 2001-- comorbid conditions, including other ADs and externalizing disorders, were not found to impact the effectiveness of CBT
Common genetic influences
in social phobia, depression, & anxiety-- Rapee & Spence, which may explain the comorbidity between them
Seperation anxiety, GAD, and social phobia all respond to the same treatments (Velting et al., 2004). Why>?
1. share the same underlying construct of anxiety
2. exhibit strong covariation with each other, both cross-sectionally and over time
3. infrequently occur as isolated conditions
4. show similar familial relationships with adult anxiety and depressive disorders
Explain the problem solving model
Bergan & Kratochwill, 1990
1. problem ID
2. problem analysis
3. treatment implementation
4. treatment evaluation
What is developmental psychopathology?
integrative discipline that seeks to unify research in multiple fields within a developmental framework

includes normal & abnormal development

includes developmental expectations & milestones

(Cichetti, 1990)
What are some of the terms you should use when speaking of developmental psychopath?
pathways, multifinality (C&R 96), equifinality (C&R, 96), heterotypic continuity (C&R, 02)
Bradley & Corwyn (2002)
difficult to predict pathways with precision & accuracy
Early symptoms of anxiety...
may predict later childhood anxiety disorders, suggesting that mental health problems develop in a gradual progression

(Donovan & Spence, 2000)
What are the 3 pathways where childhood anxiety leads to later depression in the teens?
Eaves & Silburt, 2003:

1. genetic differences in anxiety create later genetic differences in depression

2. genes that affect early anxiety increase sensitivity to adverse life events, including risk of depression

3. genes that increase risk to early anxiety increase exposure to depressogenic environmental influences
What happens if anxiety is left untreated?
Cole et al., 1998

it can be a causal risk fractor in developing depression!

see Eaves & Silburg, 2003
Many forms of anxiety are adaptive and necessary for normal development
Barrett, 2000
Epidemiology of anxiety
ADs are the most prevalent type of psychological disorder in kids & teens (Albano et al., 1991)

girls experience more fears than boys (Ollendick & King, 1991)

females are twice as likely to experience anxiety disorders (Lewinsohn et al., 1998)

social phobia: 7-13% of individuals at some point in their lives (Rapee & Spence, 2004) -- onset in early to mid-teens; earlier the onset, more severe SAD.

specific phobias: 3-4% in community samples-- again, more prevalent with girls (Ford et al., 2003)
define risk factor
antecedent condition associated with undesirable outcomes (Kazdin et al., 1997)
--influences the likelihood but does not determine the disorder
--risk factors are not exclusive or independent of each other (D&S 00).
Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children

March et al., 1999

ages 8-19
--most promising rating scale as a screener (Dierker et al., 2001)
Reynolds & Richmond, 1985

good reliablity and contains a lie scale
State Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children or for Parents

Spielberger, 1973

ages 8-15
Family Enviornment Scale

Moos & Moos, 1994

assess parent-child interaction and variables maintaining anxiety
Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale

Goodman et al., 1989

semistructured clinical interview administered to the parent or child
-clinicians rate severity of symptoms based on frequency or duration
School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised

Kearney, 2002
Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale

Chorpita et al., 2000

tripartite model
Revised Fear Survey Schedule for Children

Ollendick, 1983

ages 6-17
Social Phobia & Anxiety Inventory for Children

Biedel et al., 1999

ages 8-17, use as a screener for social phobia