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115 Cards in this Set

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a membrane is a thin layer that separates various cellular structures or organs. It usually includes lipid bilayer reinforced by proteins and other macromolecules
biological membrane or biomembrane
A biological membrane or biomembrane is an enclosing or separating tissue which acts as a barrier within or around a cell. It is, almost invariably, a lipid bilayer, composed of a double layer of lipid-class molecules, specifically phospholipids, with occasional proteins intertwined, some of which function as channels.
the modified sweat glands at the edge of the eyelid
infectious organisms are believed to play a part in at least half of all human illnesses. (ex.of diseases, causes by infectious organisms are colds, AIDS, strep throat, tuberculosos, and food poisoning.
degenerative diseases
these are disorders that involve degeneration, breaking down) of tissues in any system of the body. (ex. muscular dystrophy, cirrhosis of the liver, alzheimer disease, ostoplorosis, and arthriitis. some of these disorders are passes on by parents through our hereditary, others due to injury, substance abuse, normal wear and tear. For some such as multiple sclerosis, this is no known cause at present.
Nutritional diorders
this would be disease caused by lack diatary lack of essential vitiams, minerals, proteins, and others. the disease scury due to lack of vit. C, or beriberi due to lack of thiamine, rickets due to lack of calcium for bone development:
kwashiorkor (nutritional disorders)
a disease of children in underdeveloped countries causes by protein deficency. this is another nutritional disorder, just as intake of substances, such as alcohol, vitiams, minerals, or proteins and the intake of too many calories leading to obesity.
Metabolic disorders
these include any disruption of the reactions involved in cellular metabolism, such as diabetes, gout, (a disorder of the joints) digestive disorders and hereditary dysfunctions. Hormones regulate many metabolic reactions. The glands that produce hormones and the diseases caused by excess or deficiency of hormones.
beriberi disease
Beriberi is caused by a lack of thiamine. It is common in people whose diet consists mainly of polished white rice, which is very low in thiamine because the thiamine-bearing husk has been removed. It is also seen in chronic alcoholics with an inadequate diet, as well as being a rare side effect of gastric bypass surgery. If a baby is mainly fed on the milk of a mother who suffers from thiamine deficiency then that child may develop beriberi.

The disease has been seen traditionally in people in Asian countries (especially in the 19th century and before), due to those countries' reliance on white rice as a staple food.
Rickets Disease
Rickets is a softening of the bones in children potentially leading to fractures and deformity. Rickets is among the most frequent childhood diseases in many developing countries. The predominant cause is a vitamin D deficiency, but lack of adequate calcium in the diet may also lead to rickets. Although it can occur in adults, the majority of cases occur in children suffering from severe malnutrition, usually resulting from famine or starvation during the early stages of childhood. Osteomalacia is the term used to describe a similar condition occurring in adults, generally due to a deficiency of vitamin D.[citation needed] The word "rickets" comes from the word "rachitis," meaning wrist (and also spine), as wrist deformities are common and obvious in rickets.
systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or Lupus)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus) is a chronic autoimmune disease that is sometimes fatal as the immune system attacks the body’s cells and tissue, resulting in inflammation and tissue damage. SLE can affect any part of the body, but most often harms the heart, joints, skin, lungs, blood vessels, liver, kidneys and nervous system. The course of the disease is unpredictable, with periods of illness (called flares) alternating with remission. Lupus can occur at any age, and is most common in women, particularly of non-European descent.[1] Lupus is treatable symptomatically, mainly with corticosteroids and immunosuppressants, though there is currently no cure.
morbidity rate
decribe the proportion of people with a specifc disease in a given population per unit of tme.
Morality Rate
describes the percentage of population that dies from a given disease within a period of time.
diseases are relatively severe but usually last a shor time
diseases are often less severe but are likely to be continuous or recurring for long periods
diseases are intermediate between acute and chronic, not being as severe as acute infectons nor long lasting as chronic disorders, between the two.
a term used in describing a disease without known cause
iatrogenic disease
results from the adverse effects of treatment, including drug treatment, and surgery, the greek root iatro, relates to physician or to medicine.
communicable disease
is one that can be transmitted from one person to another.
if many people in a given region acquire a certain disease at the same time
a given disease is found to a lesser extent but continuously in a particular region, the disease is endemic to the area
a disease that is prevalent throughtout an entire country or continent or the whole world, aids is now considered to be pandemic in certain areas of the globe.
a characteristic group of syptoms and signs that accompanies a disease is called a syndrome.
is a predition of the probable outcome of a disease bases on the condition of the patient and the Drs knowlege about the disease, (gnosis) meaning knowledge.
once a patients disorder is known the dr. prescribes a course of treatment known as therapy.
1) Naturopathy
a philosophy of helping people heals themselves by developing healthy lifestyles.
2) Chiropractic
a field that stresses manipulation to correct misalignment for treatment of musculoskeletal disorder
3) Acupuncture
an ancient Chinese method of inserting thin needles into the body at specific points to relieve pain or promote healing.
4) Feedback
This teaches people to control involuntary responses, such as heart rate and blood pressure, by means of electronic devices that monitor and feed information back to a person.
A microbe or any other organism that lives on or within a living host and at the host’s expense is called a Parasite.
although most microoganisms are harmless, and many are benifical, a few types cause illness, that is, they are pathogenic
any disease causing organism is a pathogen
if the body is invaded by pathogens, with adverse effects, the condition is called an infection
if the infection is relatively restricted to a small area of the body, it is local
a generalized or systemic infection is one in which the whole body is affected. systemic infections are usually spread by the blood
opportunistic infection
an infection that takes hold because the host has been compromised (weakened) by disease is decribed as an opportunistic infection. for example people with depressed immune systems, such as those with Aids, become infected with organisms that are ordinaily harmless.
An insect or other animal that transmits a disease causing organism from one host to another is termed (VECTOR
1) Bacteria
are primitive, single celled organisms that grow in a wide variety of environments. The study of bacteria, both beneficial and disease producing is (Bacteriology). The group includes rickettsia,(Rickettsia is a genus of non-motile, Gram-negative, non-sporeforming, highly pleomorphic bacteria that can present as cocci ) and Chlamydia, which are extremely small bacteria that multiply within living cells.
2) Viruses
are extremely small infectious agents that can multiply ONLY within living cells, (Virology) is the study of viruses.
3) Fungi
is a group that included yeast and molds. (Mycology) is the study of fungi, the root (myco- refers to fungus)
4) Protozoa
are single celled animals. Their study is (Protozoology). Although the term (parasitology) is the study of parasites in general, in practice it usually refers to the study of protozoa and worms (Helminths).
5) Algae
are very simple multicellular or single cell aquatic plants. Their study is (Algology). These organisms rarely cause diseases
obligate parasite
is an organism that cannot live independently of its host. For example, a virus is an obligate parasite because it cannot reproduce outside a host cell.
aerobic organism or aerobe
is an organism that has an oxygen based metabolism. Aerobes, in a process known as cellular respiration, use oxygen to oxidize substrates (for example sugars and fats) in order to obtain energy.

Obligate aerobes require oxygen for aerobic cellular respiration.
. Characteristic of bacteria
is that they are simple, single cell organisms. Grow in many environments. Lack a true nucleus and most organelles (an organelle is a discrete structure of a cell having specialized functions, and is separately enclosed in its own lipid membrane
characterics of viruses
composed of nucleic acid and protein. Can reproduce ONLY within a living cell, and obligate intracellular parasites.
The characterics of fungi:
very simple, non green, plantlike organisms. Single cell forms are yeast; filamentous (Filamentation is the anomalous growth of certain bacteria, such as E. coli, in which cells continue to elongate but do not divide (no septa formation) forms are molds
The characterics of Protozoa
single cell, animal like organisms.
The characterics of algae
simple aquatic plant. NOT parasitic
Nitrogen Fixation
several groups of bacteria transform the nitrogen of the air into a form usable by plants, a process called (Nitrogen Fixation).
is the conversion of light energy into chemical energy by living organisms
Facultative Anaerobes
), these cells use oxygen if it is present but are able to grow without it, if not available. E. Coli is an example of a faculative anaerobe.
Anaerobic (related to bacteria)
is a technical word which literally means without air), can grow in the absence of oxygen
Aerobic (referring to bacteria
where "air" is generally used to mean oxygen), as opposed to aerobic), require oxygen
Facultative Anaerobes
these cells use oxygen if it is present but are able to grow without it, if not available. E. Coli, and intestinal organism, is an example of a facultative anaerobe
An endospore is a dormant, tough, and non-reproductive structure produced by a small number of bacteria from the Firmicute phylum. The primary function of most endospores is to ensure the survival of a bacterium through periods of environmental stress. They are therefore resistant to ultraviolet and gamma radiation, desiccation, lysozyme, temperature, starvation, and chemical disinfectants. Endospores are commonly found in soil and water, where they may survive for long periods of time. Some bacteria produce exospores or cysts instead.
many types of bacteria are capable of swimming rapidly by means of threadlike appenddages called flagella, flagella may be located around the cell, at one end, or at both ends. Short flagella are called Pili, and they help bacteria to glide along solid sufaces.
help bacteria to glide along solid surfaces. Pili also help bacteria to surfaces, such as to the surface of a liquid to get oxygen.
is when pili attach bacteria to each other for exchange of genetic informtion, in a process called conjugation
binary fusion
simple cell division
toxins - poisons
if bacteria sucdeed in overcoming our barriers of harmful micobes, such as the skin and the mucous minbranes, they can cause damage in two ways, by producing poisions or toxins and by entering the body tissues and growing withing them.
these cells are straight, slender rods taperind ends. ALL endospores forming bacteria are Bacilli.
Curved Rods (shape and arrangement of bacteria
include several categories, vibrios,(the look like a sperm with a long tail), spirochetes, (those look like a spiral perm, spiral shaped organisms that move with a twisting motion) and spirochetes, photomicrograh (
are short rods with a slight curvature, life a comma. Chorlera (Cholera (or Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.[1] Transmission to humans is by ingesting contaminated water or food. The major reservoir for cholera was long assumed to be humans, but some evidence suggests that it is the aquatic environment.
is caused by vibrio
are long and wavelike cells, resembling a corkscrew. the singular is spirullum.
a long and wavelike cells recsembling a corkscrew, the singular is spirillum
are similar to the spillar, but are capable of waving and twisting motions one infection caused by spirochete is syphilis, they enter the body usually throught the geninal skin or mucous membranes. A spirochete is also responsible for lyme disease.
although bacteria seem small, they are enormous in comparison with viruses.
although bacteria seem small, they are enourmous in comparision to viruses. unlike molecules viruses contain genetic material and are able to reproduce. they can only be seen with an electron miscroscope.
are infectious particle composed solely of protein they are very lsow growing and hard to destoy, some ex of diesease caused by this is Mad cow disease , scapie in sheep
in contrast are composed of RNA alone with NO protein coat they are also intracellular parasites, but so far they have been linked only to diseases in plants.
the small round worm is not transmitted by feces, but in pork and meat of the wild game such as bear, and wild pig.
when the larvae emerge, they travel to the hosts muscles where again become encysted the females mate. this disease is known as trichinosis.
biting insects such as flies and mosquitoes, transmit tiny threadlike filaria worm that causes filariasis.
causes by worms that grow in large numbers causing various disturbances. if they clog the lymphatic vessles, a condition called elephatiasis results, in which the lower extremities, the scrotom, the breast and toher areas may beomes tremdously enlarged. it is most common in the subtropical lands, southern asia, south pacific islands.
flat worms
resemble long ribbons
whereas others have the shape of a leaf
may grow in the intestinal tract to a length of 1.5 to 15 meters, (5 to 50 feet). they are spread by infected improperly cooked meats, beef, pork, fish.
flukes (leaf shape worms)
may invade various parts of the body including the blood, lungs, liver and intestine.
means to kill every living microorganism on it
refers to any measure that kills all pathogens except spores) but does not necessarily kill all harmless microbes.
this term refers to any process in pathogens are not necessarily killed but are prevented from multiplying, a state called bacteriostasis.
acting weird
A cilium (plural cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Cilia are thin, tail-like projections extending approximately 5–10 micrometers outwards from the cell body.
There are two types of cilia: motile cilia, which constantly beat in a single direction, and non-motile cilia, which typically serve as sensory organelles. Along with flagella, they make up a group of organelles known as undulipodia
1)Areolar connective tissue (or loose connective tissue) is the most widely distributed connective tissue type in vertebrates. 2)Fiberous connective tissue is a type of loose irregular connective tissue and has a network of reticular fibers (fine type III collagen) that form a soft skeleton (stroma) to support the lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, red bone marrow, thymus, and spleen.) Fiborous fibers are synthesized by special fibroblasts called Fibous cells. The fibers are thin branching structures.

Adipose tissue is held together by reticular fibers.

They can be identified in histology by staining with a heavy metal like silver or the PAS stain that stains carbohydrates.

Reticular connective tissue resembles areolar connective tissue, but the only fibers in its matrix are reticular fibers, which form a delicate network along which fibroblasts called reticular cells lie scattered. Although reticular fibers are widely distributed in the body, reticular tissue is limited to certain sites. It forms a labyrinth-like stroma (literally, "bed or "mattress"), or internal framework, that can support many free blood cells (large lymphocytes) in lymph nodes, the spleen, and red bone marrow. 3)Dense connective tissue, also called dense fibrous tissue, has collagen fibers as its main matrix element. It is mainly composed of collagent type I. Crowded between the collagen fibers are rows of fibroblasts, fiber-forming cells, that manufacture the fibers. Dense connective tissue forms strong, rope-like structures such as tendons and ligaments. Tendons attach skeletal muscles to bones; ligaments connect bones to bones at joints. Ligaments are more stretchy and contain more elastic fibers than tendons. Dense connective tissue also make up the lower layers of the skin (dermis), where it is arranged in sheets.
3 types of fibrous connective tissue
Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria can be identified by growing them in liquid culture:
1: Obligate aerobic bacteria gather at the top of the test tube in order to absorb maximal amount of oxygen.
2: Obligate anaerobic bacteria gather at the bottom to avoid oxygen.
3: Facultative bacteria gather mostly at the top, since aerobic respiration is the most beneficial one; but as lack of oxygen does not hurt them, they can be found all along the test tube.
4: Microaerophiles gather at the upper part of the test tube but not at the top. They require oxygen but at a low concentration.
5: Aerotolerant bacteria are not affected at all by oxygen, and they are evenly spread along the test tube
the substance that fills the cell from the plasma membrane to the nuclear membrane
a long whiplike extension from the cell, the only type of cell in human body that has a flagellum is sperm cell is the male.
small hairlike projections that wave, creating movement of the fluids around the cell.
contain digestive enzymes. Lysosome remove waist and foreign materials from the cell.
in the pairing of bases in
DNA Thymine pairs with Adenine.
Remember that ALL Enzymes are proteins and that Enzymes are essential for all cellular reactions.
The substance that makes up the genes, DNA is thus the master blueprint of the cell.
In RNA instead of using Thymine in DNA, RNA uses Uracil and it pairs with Adenine.
RNA is much like DNA except that is exists as a single strand of nucleotides.
the process begins with the transfer of information from DNA to RNA in the nucleus.
before Transcription begins, the DNA breaks its weak bonds and uncoils into single strands. Then a matching strand of RNA forms along one of the DNA strands by the process of nucleotide pairing. When complete, the messenger RNA (mRNA) leaves the nucleus and travels to a ribsome in the cytosplasm
Ribosomal RNA. Ribosomes are composed of a type of RNA called (rRNA), and also protein. At the ribosome the genetic message now contained within (mRNA) is decoded to build amino acids into the long chains form proteins, a process called transcription.
This final step requires a third type of RNA, transfer RNA (tRNA), small molecules present in the cytoplasm. Each tRNA carries a specific amino acid that can be added to the protein chain. A nucleotide code on each tRNA determines whether or not its amino acid will be added.
is a continuous process, distrint changes can be seen in the dividing cell at 4 stages. 1)prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
stages of mitosis. When it is not dividing the cell is in interphase. the period between on cell division and the next.
the nucleolus and the nuclear membrane begin to disappear. In the cytoplasm, the two centriloes move toward opposite ends of the cell and a spindle shaped structure made of thin fibes begins to form between them.
the chromosomes line up across the center (equator) of the cell attached to spindle fibers.
the centromere splits and the duplicated chromosomes separate and begin to move toward the opposite ends of the cell
a membrane appears around each group of separated chromosomes, forming two new nuclei.
relatively large particles are engulfed by the plasma membrane and moved into the cell. Certain white cells carry out phagocytosis ro rid the body of foreign material and dead cells. Material taken into the cell by phagocytosis is first enclosed in a vesicle made from plasma membrane and is later destroyed by lysosomes.
is a special type of diffusion. The term applies specifically to the diffusion of the water through a semipermaeable membrane. The water molecules move as expected, from an area where there are more of them to an area where there are fewer of them.
is the passage of water containing dissolved materials through a membrane as a result of mechanical (pushing) force on one side.
a cell placed in a hypotonic solution draws water in, swells, and may burst. When a red blood cell draws in water and bursts in this way, the cell is said to be (HEMOLYSIS).
a cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, which is more concentrated than the cellular fluids and shrinks, a process termed (CRENATION).
has the same concentration of dissolved substances as the fluid in the cell, which is: 0.9% salt (normal saline) and 5% dextrose (glucose). which means no effects on the cell, the cell is equilibrium with its enviroment.
0.9% OF SALT
The percentange of 0.9% salt is a normal saline solution.
are natural occurrences in the process of cell division and are increased by exposure to harmful substances & radiation in the environment. Mutations usually harm cells and may lead to cancer.
a personal characteristic or lifestyle habit that increases ones chances of getting cancer.
The prefix meaning same, or equal.
the outline of cells were first seen in a dried plant tissue 350 yrs. ago.
Study of their internal structure, however, developed the microscpe.