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20 Cards in this Set

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Tetracyclines (TC)
effect on bacteria?
enter bacteria?
resistance?
Bacteriostatic
through porins-->energy dependent
:efflux pump (plasmid) & ribosome protection proteins
*resistance to 1=all
Lipophilic Tetracyclines
Minocycline and doxycycline.
Can go through (-) outer membrane
: are effective against some bact resistant to other TC
antimicrobial spectrum TC
1) broad
2) Rickettsial
3) m. pneumonia
4) chlamydia
Distribution TC
CNS?
Placenta?
Metabolized?
minocycline best
: affect long bones and teeth in baby
: Liver & some kidney
doxy and mino all liver
TC Adverse Affects
Gastric probs, bones in young, hepatotoxicity, photo, vestibular probs, yeast infection
Aminoglycosides (AG)
spectrum?
name clue?
bacterial effect?
:gram - and help w/gram +
: mycin or micin
: bactericidal
AG transport
:Through outer wall
:through cytoplasmic membrane
:how effect protein sythesis
:concentration trend
: (-) pores, sometimes disrupt outer membrane, make own pores
(+) water filled areas of wall
:Binds, oxygen dependent across
**ONLY AEROBIC BACTERIA
:only 1 ribosome per mRNA, misread mRNA
:[ ] dependent killing and post AntB effect
AG
Resistance Forms (3)
: Modify drug enzymatically (plasmid)
: Bad O2 dependet transport
: Alter ribosomes
AG
Antibacterial Spectrum
(very important)
Bactericidal?
1) Aerobic
2) Primarily (-) (pseudomonas, enterobacter
3) Staph and strep
4) w/penicillins for gram + : turn bactericidal
AG
Absorbed?
Metabolism?
Toxicity?
: No PO, only IV, IM topical, no CSF
: Kidney, unchanged
: Nephrotoxicity (neomycin don't give)
: Ototoxicty (strep and genta)
: Neuromuscular block (MG)
less toxicity w/once day dosing
Macrolides:
Erythromycin, chloramphenicol and clindamycin, azythromycin
: indications
: bacteriocidal?
: resistance
: Esp. for penicillin allergies, legionella, bordatella
: Bacteriostatic except s. pneumoniae and s. pyogens
: Most staph in hospital. Less upake and modfied ribosome
Erythromycin, chlor and clinda
: Metabolism
: Adverse effects
: Liver P-450
: Epigastric distress, jaundice, ototoxicity, pts w/liver probs
:
claritromymin: Good against?

Azithromycin: Good against?
: erythromycin stuff. h. influenza, chlamydia

: less against staph and strep than erythro. H. flu and Moaxella catarrhalis. MAC
Chloramphenicol
: Activity?
: Resistance?
: spectrum?
: mostly bacteriostatic. Only serious infections (toxic)
: Change permeability, ribosome
: Very broad, even some non-bacteria
When use chloramphenicol?

Toxicity
: Typhoid fever and brain abcess, otherwise try other drug first, Watch for blood problems
: aplastic or Hemolytic anemia, grey baby (kidneys can't excrete), P450 interact
Clindamycin
:spectrum
: enter brain?
metabolism:
Adverse effects:
: + and anaerobes. NO Aerobic (-). CA-MRSA. alternative to penicillin for strep. intrabdominal and gynococal
: no
: Allergy, pseundomembranous enterocolitis (C. Diff)
Streptogramins (synercid)
: mechanism
: spectrum
: metabolism
: dverse effects
: 2 things act together inhibit protein
: enterococcus faecium, MRSA, S. epidermerdis, pneumonia bacteria
: poorly absorbed, need IV
Linezolid
action:
adverse
spectrum
protein synthesis inhibitor
:N/V, bone marrow supression
: s. aureus, srep, e. faecium and e. faecalis
mupirocin
spectrum:
use:
: most gram positive
: prophylaxis and skin infection
and clearance of MRSA colonization in nasopharynx
mitronidazole
action
penetration
spectrum
: disrupts DNA
: bactericidal for anaerobes and protozoan